HCG in ectopic pregnancy: level and dynamics in early pregnancy, as opposed to the norm
Hgg in ectopic pregnancy: dynamics of an important indicator
When a woman has a delay in her period, the first thing she thinks about is whether she is pregnant.
Finely determine whether she was conceived or not, it helps to analyze the blood sample for chorionic gonadotropin.
But pregnancy does not always go well. Therefore, it is very important to do an ultrasound in time to dispel all doubts. However, ultrasound is not always able to recognize the fetal egg in the uterine cavity.
They simply do not see the egg, as it is often the case at an early stage of pregnancy, or the fetus is mistakenly pregnant and the fetus is actually absent.
These diagnoses can confirm or disprove the blood test for hCG. How does the course of pregnancy affect the concentration of the hormone and can the changes in the hormone be used to detect any abnormalities in the process in a timely manner?
Why is chorionic gonadotropin considered to be a pregnancy hormone?
Immediately after conception it starts to produce hCG.
Hormone consists of 2 subunits – proteins α and β. Alpha-HCG is in demand for the production of other hormones and is present in the minimum amount in the body of each person.
If the process runs correctly, already on the 5-7th day produced a significant amount of protein. A maximum of 200 mMU/ml is reached by the end of the first trimester.
Chorionic gonadotropin plays an important role in ovulation and further production of yellow bodies.
The hormone enlarges the yellow body after fertilization and stimulates the production of progesterone until it is produced by the placenta.
The task of hCG is to maintain immunity and create conditions that prevent rejection of the embryo by the mother.
And the hormone stimulates the functionality of the cells that produce testosterone, which provides a normal formation of the male reproductive system.
How does the concentration of hCG change?
Active hCG production continues until the placenta is sufficiently formed to provide the necessary hormonal background for the embryo.
At the same time the concentration of the hormone rises sharply to 8-9 weeks. Hormone levels then begin to decrease gradually.
Fine diagnosis is only possible with hormone concentrations greater than 25 mMU/ml. Chorionic gonadotropin levels can be tracked:
|Day after ovulation (DPO)||HCG, mme/ml||Day after ovulation (DPO)||HCG performance, mMU/ml|
>In the blood of men and women outside pregnancy, hormone levels of up to 5 mMU/ml can be detected. This is due to the fact that alpha hCG is identical to some of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland.
The indicator of 5-25 mMU/ml is considered doubtful to confirm the diagnosis of “pregnancy” and requires confirmation. Therefore, it is recommended that the blood sample be repeated after 2-3 days to determine what level of concentration has become.
The level of hCG in urine sufficient for a reliable analysis is 1.5-2 times lower than in blood. Because of this, the urine sample can be determined 1-2 days later than the blood serum analysis.
Disturbance in the index indicates problems with the course of pregnancy.
What does hCG mean, how the analysis is surrendered and decoded in this video.
Why are hCG concentrations slowly increasing in ectopic pregnancy?
Out uterine pregnancy means that the foetal egg is attached outside the uterine cavity.
In this case, the symptomatology of the early stage is virtually identical to that of a normal pregnancy.
But hCG in ectopic pregnancy may be lower, and the dynamics of growth of chorionic gonadotropin concentration may differ significantly from the norm. In this case, it is said that the blood test for hCG showed ectopic pregnancy.
Active production of beta hCG begins when the egg is immersed in the endometrium of the uterine wall. During the process, the formation of the trophoblast – the outer cell layer, designed to ensure normal nutrition of the embryo.
Binding to other organs is accompanied by reduced production of hormone, as there are no conditions necessary for the formation of nap trophoblast. This type of endometrium is only present in the uterus. Accordingly, the trophoblast is formed with abnormalities, which leads to a slow increase in chorionic concentration.
To ensure that the dynamics of hCG changes in early ectopic pregnancy is reliable, it is advisable to conduct blood serum tests several times every 2 days.
But in this case, the analysis is accurate only to 80%. The complex use of hCG and ultrasound analysis allows to diagnose ectopic pregnancy with greater confidence.
HCG level decoding in ectopic pregnancy
Unfortunately, detection of ectopic pregnancy based on hCG is difficult. At an early stage, the hormone concentration in the blood can double every 1.4-2.1 days.
No precise decoding of hCG results in ectopic pregnancy.
In normal, the increase should be at least 66%. Therefore, only if the rates begin to grow too slowly can we suspect abnormal pregnancy.
At the same time, 66% is an average, which is largely dependent on the individuality of the body. According to statistics, slow growth of the hormone is observed in 15% of cases of normal pregnancy.
At the same time, in 13% of women with ectopic pregnancy at an early stage there was an increase in the concentration of the hormone every 2 days by 66%.
Studies have shown that normal dynamics of hCG at an early stage of pregnancy pathology occurs in 64% of cases.
But analyzing the histories of 730 pregnancies with vaginal bleeding and painful feelings in the pelvic area, the scientists concluded that the risk of ectopic pregnancy diagnosis is significantly increased at the hCG rate of 2 times less than 1500 mMU/ml.
Thus, among 158 patients with low hCG levels, pregnancy was normal in 16%. The statistics also show that an increase in the hormone concentration above the 1000 mMU/ml limit could result in a rupture of the fallopian tube.
But you should not rely only on the determination of the hormone index, as its range is significant. That's why it is recommended to use ultrasound in diagnosis of 2 methods.
Uzium does not always show ectopic pregnancy, but confirms the absence of normal pregnancy.
The combination of a negative ultrasound result with a slow increase in the concentration of chorionic gonadotropin, allows timely detection of pathology and measures to reduce the risk of rupture of the fallopian tube.
Which causes can lead to reduced hCG growth
The result of low hCG levels can be more than just ectopic pregnancy. The causes of slow growth of the hormone include:
- Menstrual cycle irregularity.
Unable to accurately identify the date of fertilization often leads to an incorrect diagnosis of timing. As the error is observed, it is corrected.
- The threat of spontaneous miscarriage.
The threat of placenta interruptions or detachment provokes a decrease of 50% below normal.
Accompanied by the cessation of hCG production. Therefore, its level gradually drops.
- Placental chronic failure.
Develops due to the lack of normal blood supply to the fetus and causes hCG deficiency.
- Early analysis.
Concentration of the substance has not yet reached the required limit.
In any case, a decrease in the hormone level is an indication for a thorough examination. In order to ensure healthy fetal development and reduce the risk of fallopian tube rupture, it is recommended that midwife appointments are not neglected and that examinations are carried out on time.
HCG level in ectopic pregnancy: decoding of test results
Chorionic gonadotropin (abbreviated names of CG and CGTs) is a gonadotropic hormone secreted by the placenta during child-bearing. Produced from the first hours of conception, increases several thousand times over the 7th week, then slowly declines.
This is extremely important. This makes it possible to suspect in a timely manner that the foetal egg is not positioned correctly when it is outside the uterus. HCG in ectopic pregnancies differs from the normal level of this period. The sooner they are identified, the less risk to the young woman's health.
Timporarily detected low hCGF values in ectopic pregnancy allow the doctor to orientate himself to the situation and make the right decision. After all, this condition is a real tragedy for any woman for the following reasons.
- First, there is no chance to keep the child.
- Second, not only the health, but also the life of the woman are in danger at this point. An ectopic (fallopian) tube, where the fertilized egg is often fixed, can rupture at any time and cause not only bleeding and severe pain, but also death.
- Thirdly, in the future it becomes difficult to conceive fully. Read more about planning a pregnancy after ectopic pregnancy.
- B-four, it is a very insidious and dangerous condition, because in the first few months, it occurs in the same way as a normal pregnancy. And here comes the help of hCG analysis in ectopic pregnancy, which will show abnormalities and allow to carry out immediate medical surgery in time.
Blood and urine analyses show insufficient level of hCG in ectopic pregnancy, because the cells of chorion (embryo shell) begin to produce this hormone in small quantities compared to the norm in this position. Why is this happening?
High hCG level in a woman's body just gives a positive reaction to the pregnancy test, including ectopic one. The result is a change in the color of the strips when in contact with urine.
Already at this stage, if you look closely at the test, you may suspect something wrong and contact your doctor with your doubts.
Chorionic hormone hormone in ectopic pregnancy behaves as follows:
- higher than in a normal pregnancy;
- this is why one of the dough strips is most often stained vaguely, not brightly;
- to confirm or disprove suspicions, the doctor prescribes blood and urine tests: The results of hCG in ectopic pregnancy depend on the age of the fetus and are compared with the indicators of a special table (see Table 1). The following);
- after that, if the suspicion is confirmed, an ultrasound is already performed;
- moreover, the doctor can take a blood test for this hormone every two days to track the dynamics: in normal condition it will double, while the growth of hCG in ectopic pregnancy will be very small, will not have dynamics and is good if it increases only twice in a whole week.
All these features will help to diagnose the pathology in a timely manner and take appropriate measures to protect the woman from complications and eliminate the danger to her health and life. The sooner the ectopic pregnancy is removed, the more likely it is that it will not suffer.
Precise data on whether hCG is an ectopic pregnancy can only be provided by tests. The test shows dubious results, it is better not to rely on it and to check your suspicions with the help of laboratory tests, which in such a situation are prescribed by your doctor.
Laboratory decoding of hCG in ectopic pregnancies is considered the most accurate and reliable way of interpreting hCG in a blood test. It shows an increase in the level of this hormone 4 days after fertilization and even earlier. Blood hCG levels in the normal course of pregnancy are more than 15 mEU/ml, and in ectopic cases this may be slightly lower.
Blood hCG analysis is usually taken from the vein in the morning. A woman is warned not to eat anything, i.e. the blood should be taken on an empty stomach. It is recommended to perform such laboratory tests not earlier than 4 days after the menstruation delay. To refine the results, the doctor usually repeats the analysis after 2 days.
Slightly lower the accuracy of the urine hCG assay in ectopic pregnancy. A woman is not recommended to drink more than 2 liters of liquid beforehand, otherwise the results may not be as reliable.
If previous urine and blood tests for hCG suspected an ectopic pregnancy, the doctor prescribes an ultrasound examination at an early stage of baby's pregnancy.
In this situation, any delay is fraught with a serious deterioration in the condition of the young woman (the fallopian tube can burst at any time).
The ultrasound does not detect the embryo in the uterus cavity, while the rounded formation in the tube is very clearly visualized.
If the results are questionable, urine and blood tests should be performed regularly (every two days) to monitor the dynamics of the hormone growth.
This is due to the fact that hCG growth is much slower in ectopic pregnancies than in normal cases. By tracking the dynamics, the physician minimizes the risk of misdiagnosis.
In addition, you can check the level of chorionic gonadotropin using a special table.
There is a special hCG table for pregnant women, which defines the limits of normal levels of this hormone. If your tests fit in, there's no need to worry: the baby is born without pathologies.
However, if the results are much lower, it's worth doing more research and checking to see if you have an ectopic pregnancy. The hCG rate for nonbelievers ranges from 0 to 5. The normal weekly values of chorionic gonadotropin in pregnant women are shown in the following table:
Based on the data in this table, only a physician can decide if there is an ectopic pregnancy pathology. A woman's self-interpretation of these indicators can be erroneous and lead to even more tragic consequences.
After all, a lowered level of hCG in this condition may indicate other abnormalities: undeveloped, frozen pregnancy, threat of termination, chronic placental insufficiency, antenatal death of the foetus.
Also, the woman herself, without a specialist, cannot work with the hCG table because she has her own characteristics.
Properties of the hCG table
Women who for some reason suspect their ectopic pregnancy are too keen on the indicators of this table, having no idea about some of its features. Knowing about them, you will be able to avoid tragic mistakes and make no hasty conclusions about your condition.
- Table norms of chorionic gonadotropin for different weeks of pregnancy are given for the terms that are calculated from the moment of conception. While many people think that the starting point should be the day of the last menstruation.
- Memorize that the HCG values given in this table are not the benchmark at all. Today in medicine there are many other, more accurate and reliable ways and methods of diagnosing ectopic pregnancy by hCG level. And each of them will have its own interpretations and figures.
- Laboratories that conduct hormonal background studies of pregnant women are very numerous. And each of them can set standards different from the others. So when evaluating the results of hCG tests, you need to rely only on the indicators of the specific laboratory where the study was conducted.
The couple preparing to become parents should understand what is right, even the table indicators of hCG can be competently interpreted only by the attending physician.
Only he will explain the deviations from the figures in this table, prescribe an ultrasound, make a conclusion and make a decision.
ectopic pregnancy is too dangerous for a woman to rely only on her own doubts and suspicions. In this case, it is desirable to know about other symptoms of the pathology.
So that as the weak growth of hCG during this period may indicate not only ectopic pregnancy, but also other pathologies of child-bearing, other symptoms of this condition need to be known. Their presence would confirm doubts and their absence would give hope that the suspicions were in vain. Signs of ectopic pregnancy include, in addition to slow growth in hCG levels:
- sparing, incomprehensible, bleeding secretions instead of another menstruation;
- pretty, very painful sensations in the area of the abdomen, closer to the lower part of the abdomen;
- deterioration of health: dizziness, rapid fatigue, mood swings, drowsiness (or vice versa – insomnia), loss of appetite, reduced performance – in normal pregnancy at an early age, all these symptoms are not yet so pronounced, but
- if the period is already long, it is possible regular loss of consciousness, fever, fever.
Lower hCG level in ectopic pregnancy is not the only symptom of this dangerous condition. If a woman listens carefully and sensitively to her own body, she will suspect something wrong in the first few weeks.
This can be a real salvation for her. If this pathology is diagnosed in a timely manner, termination of pregnancy can be done medically. But the longer the time is, the greater the risk of a ruptured fallopian tube that can be fatal.
In this case, the decision is made about prompt treatment.
Level of relief in ectopic pregnancy by weeks – decoding the result!
How does ectopic pregnancy happen?
In this way, the fertilized healthy egg is attached to the wall of the fallopian tube and not in the uterine cavity itself. This pathological feature is detrimental to the health of any woman and can lead to death. If the fetus is not removed from the fallopian tube in a timely manner, it can tear the organ and open a severe internal bleeding.
Extrauterine Pregnancy Scheme
Each woman needs to be extremely careful in the early stages of pregnancy and must be aware of the signs of abnormal pregnancy, as she may pass asymptomatically for a very long time and not give herself away until she feels seriously ill. An accurate and correct diagnosis can only be made by an experienced professional based on detailed analysis.
Blood analysis for hCG
What is the hormone of hCG?
Exciting for every woman is the process of determining pregnancy. A positive answer in this situation may be the amount of hCG in the blood. HCG is a hormone that can be used to judge whether an egg has been fertilized. It is produced from the very beginning of conception by the chorion (the outer shell of the embryo itself), and its saturation in the body increases with the passage of time.
For the record of ectopic pregnancies in women, the hormone level in such situations is quite frequent and differs from the established standards for normal pregnancies. Accordingly, once tested, the presence of a pathology can be judged.
Blood analysis for hCG levels
Extrauterine pregnancy is not only a great disappointment, but also a terrible threat to a woman's health. It is very important to diagnose this pathological abnormality in a timely manner and to take the necessary measures to preserve the fertility of the woman.
Define the exact level of human chorionic gonadotropin in such a proven way:
- by means of a hormonal blood test;
- by means of a urine test;
- by means of a pregnancy test.
All of these, only a detailed blood test can give the most accurate result. This analysis should be done in the morning, preferably on an empty stomach or five hours after a meal at any time of the day. Another method is an ultrasound (ultra-sound scan) that can show you a picture of the embryo and its location.
Extrauterine ultrasound photos
Standard pharmacy test or urine analysis can show you a positive result. But in order to track the dynamics of hormone growth, I need to pass several times.
HCG Analyses and their parameters
Lower hCG levels
It is important to understand that each test must be taken more than once in order to consistently observe the dynamics of hormone concentration growth.
All because it is precisely during ectopic pregnancy that hormone levels increase, but are relatively slow and slow. Compared to a normal pregnancy, it increases every two days by about 60%.
With ectopic – the result increases at this level only twice a week. Slow growth of hCG may indicate ectopic or frozen pregnancy.
Moderate pregnancy and hCG level
If the level of this hormone is significantly lower, the following problems are highlighted:
- weekly low hormone levels indicate that the child is not developing and growing properly