Inflammation of the lungs: symptoms in children, first signs, treatment of pneumonia
Signature of pneumonia in a 3-year-old child
Pneumonia refers to a disease that can be often found in children of different ages. Inflammation of the lungs is a complex respiratory disease, both when confirming the diagnosis and when prescribing treatment. Everything will depend on the extent to which the lungs are affected.
Given the age, the signs of pneumonia in a 3-year-old child may appear with their own characteristics. Based on the clinical severity of the disease, a diagnosis may be made immediately or additional tests may be needed.
The symptoms and treatment of a child with pneumonia will be individual.
Characteristics of the disease
Pneumonia is an infectious lesion of the lung tissue. In case of disease, the infection penetrates into the lowest parts of the respiratory system, so that the affected area of the organ is unable to perform its breathing function (oxygen assimilate, release carbon dioxide). The disease is therefore much more severe than other respiratory infections.
Alveoli and lung tissue are often affected during the disease. Inflammation can be of different origins and can be caused by:
- bacteria – often pneumococcal infection. Staphylococcus, streptococcus, chlamydiae and other pathogens;
- viruses are more common (influenza virus, adenoviruses). When the immune system is weakened, the disease can cause the herpes virus;
- fungus – it occurs rarely (candidiasis), affecting patients who have severe immunodeficiency, the disease is severe;
- Parasites – when parasites enter the lungs, they accumulate eosinophiles. Next, eophilic pneumonia develops. Organ damage is manifested by ascarids, pulmonary sacristan, pork chain.
From the area of the disease, pneumonia happens:
- of the focal;
- of the segment;
- of the fractional;
- of the plum;
of the total.
When one of the lungs is affected, the inflammation is called unilateral. In case of inflammation of 2 lungs, then it is a bilateral inflammation.
Also the disease may develop independently or be a complication of the previous infection.
Factors of infection are referred to as infection:
- nursing (hospital-acquired) pneumonia;
- medical condition;
The treatment of pneumonia in children aged 3 years is aimed at eliminating the causative agent, reducing the manifestation of symptoms, and supporting the body's protective function. The main thing is to correctly determine the factor of the disease development, then the treatment will be effective.
It is important to know that the infestation of the disease depends on the pathogen. Pneumonia is often contagious. This is a typical pneumonia that is caused by pneumococcal disease.
In addition to inflammation of the lungs, this germ affects the middle ear through otitis and meningitis develops. Even a patient who has had an infection can be a symptomless carrier of pneumonia.
Because you may not see who became the carrier of the infection from which the child was infected.
But the manifestation of pneumonia also depends on viral ailments that last a long time. In this case, the bacterial disease is adjusted for viral infection, as the child's immunity is reduced.
Cause of the disease
Children's disease may vary in appearance and rate of development. It is often severe and requires inpatient treatment.
Pneumonia in young children is rarely infectious, more often manifested as a complication of sore throat, bronchitis.
Factors that contribute to pneumonia in children aged 3 years.
- Oxygen deprivation of the infant during pregnancy or childbirth.
- It is an injury, birth complications.
- Pulmonary problems that occurred after birth.
- Anemia, rickets.
- Lack of development.
- Hdamidia, herpes.
- Lack of immunity.
- Heart disease.
- Health disease.
- Digestructive digestion.
- Vitamin deficiency.
Pneumonia also develops through inhalation of chemical vapours, allergic processes in the body, hypothermia, and overheating of the respiratory tract. In a child of three years of age, various processes that weaken organ tissue can cause an inflammatory process.
The disease is most often manifested against the background of acute respiratory disease or flu. Due to the action of the virus, the body's protective function is weakened, which is why painful microorganisms cause inflammation. Bacteria are present in the air, on surrounding objects, toys. Children may also become infected from a patient with a purulent inflammatory education.
They have difficulty coughing up sputum at the age of three, which is why it accumulates in their organs and leads to the development of pathogens.
The cause of pneumonia in a child may be improper treatment for respiratory disease. In this case, you shouldn't treat the child on your own. This is particularly true for preventive courses and antibiotic therapy.
Why does the disease re-emerge?
Pretty often the disease affects children aged three years. Not an exception and a repetition of the disease. This is due to the fact that the causative agent was not completely excluded from the body. Therefore, during the reduction of the immune system, bacteria again cause inflammation in the lungs.
Speaking pneumonia poses a risk of severe intoxication to the child.
The reasons that lead to the recurrence of inflammation are attributed to:
- Chronic ailments (heart disease);
- cystic fibrosis;
- the wrong drug is prescribed to control bacteria during the cure of primary pneumonia;
If children often have pneumonia, a complete examination is necessary to identify the factor that contributes to the weakening of the body's protective function.
Signs of illness
All high activity of the infectious agent or weakened protective function of the organism on this agent, when the use of effective drugs does not bring positive results, any parent can guess from the individual symptoms that his or her child needs serious treatment and urgent examination by a pediatrician.
The occurrence of pneumonia most often depends on the level and extent of organ infection. If the zone of inflammation is large and develops actively, then the disease can manifest itself brightly and hard to develop. In most cases, however, pneumonia is not severe and can be treated.
The main symptoms of pneumonia in a 3-year-old child are as follows:
- the laid nose or cold;
- weak and sluggish state;
- constantly want to sleep;
- reduced appetite;
- pale skin;
- increased temperature;
Focus (bronchopneumonia) is characterized by occurrence as a complication or development of acute respiratory viral infections. The disease initially manifests itself as a common cold. The child has a runny nose, sniffles, coughs.
Relative to the measure of lung disease, the infection drops below. Rarely viral infections initially affect the bronchi, and then switch to the lungs.
Then join the microbial flora, the child gets worse, after 5 days of illness.
After, the health of children aged 3 years begins to deteriorate dramatically, there is a strong, dry cough. Sometimes, there is a strengthening of the already existing cough, which turns into a chest cough and a strong cough.
The baby is suffering from shortness of breath, it occurs during exercise, during crying. Also, dyspnea can occur, even in a quiet position and in a dream.
While the child is breathing at a distance you can hear noises in the lungs. Wings of the nose are swollen and breathing is also done by chest muscles.
The disease is mainly accompanied by an increase in temperature, it reaches 39 degrees, in some moments above, it is not easy to lower. Although young children of this age may have pneumonia without a fever or with a low fever due to lack of body defenses and temperature mechanisms.
Toddlers two years of age have seizures when fever occurs, when the temperature is higher and lasts longer. Fever-reducing drugs in this situation have no effect.
Fever can be present for several days, even if the treatment is timely, as it is a typical feature of the disease.
In some cases, the baby is active for two years, which is not immediately suspected of the presence of pneumonia.
Further, when the body is exhausted by compensatory mechanisms, the baby changes its behavior, it becomes capricious, very excited. There are rashes on the skin.
The child's skin is wet and hot when touched, there is a breach of the stool, he refuses to eat, which leads to vomiting. Coughing is strong and can cause nosebleeds. He is worried, does not want to eat, sleeps a lot.
When the doctor listens to the chest, symptoms of heavy breathing are admitted, which indicates an inflammatory process in the area of bronchi and upper respiratory tract. In addition, small rales can be heard that are marked above the lung surface.
The rattles are wet and do not go away when the child coughs. It is a liquid in the alveoli that claps at its walls.
Maybe it is also possible to note the presence of tachycardia (increased heart rate), and possibly muting the tones of the heart against the background of toxicosis. There may also be such symptoms:
- stomach pain;
- diarrhea, which causes intestinal infection;
- liver is very much increasing;
- bloating the intestinal loop.
Based on these symptoms, the child's well-being is assessed as severe.
Symptoms can also be detected with additional examinations of the child.
- Auscultation, lung hearing.
- Chest X-ray.
- Blood examination indicators.
In a lung X-ray image of a child's lung symptom is determined by focal tissues with nerve contours, in addition, the lung pattern is strengthened, the lung roots are widened.
Blood examination revealed an increase in the SOE, leukocytes are elevated, and there is a leukocyte shift in the leukocyte formula.
How to treat the disease
Patients' lung disease is most often treated in hospital. The only treatment for inflammation is antibiotics, often in the form of injections.
There is a large number of drugs available. Your child's doctor will decide which drugs are right for him/her based on the results of a thorough examination. When one of the prescribed antibiotics fails, the doctor will prescribe another.
It is important to follow the doctor's instructions and not to avoid the use of drugs, because pneumonia is often the cause of death of the patient. The use of traditional remedies as a primary treatment is not positive, but only as an adjunct.
The use of antibiotics should be strictly time-sensitive. When you are prescribed to take the drug twice a day, you need to take a 12-hour break between treatments. These antibiotics are administered:
- penicillin – take 7 days;
- macrolides (Josamycin, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin) – take 5 days.
Deffectiveness of the drugs comes 72 hours after taking them. The child's appetite improves, the temperature drops, and dyspnea escapes.
Temperature-reducing products are used if the temperature exceeds 39 degrees Celsius. At the initial stage of the disease, antipyretics are not used, as they make it difficult to assess the effectiveness of the treatment.
It is important to remember that the maximum number of antibodies against the causative agent is produced at high temperatures in the body. Because when a child is able to tolerate a temperature of 38 degrees, it shouldn't be lowered. In this case, the body will quickly cope with the harmful microorganism that caused the illness in the child.
If episodes of febrile cramps have been noticed, the temperature can be reduced at 37.5 degrees Celsius.
When children have no appetite during an illness, this phenomenon is considered normal and the refusal to eat indicates a serious impact on the liver. Therefore, you should not force a child to eat.
If possible, it is necessary to cook light meals. These can be cereals, soups, steamed cutlets, boiled potatoes that are easily digestible, as well as vegetables and fruits. It is not allowed to give fried, fatty foods.
Drink the child fresh juices (carrots, apples). It can also be raspberry tea, rosehip infusion, water by adding water-electrolyte solutions (rehydron) to the drink.
It is necessary to ventilate and clean the room every day. Using a humidifier will help relieve the patient's condition.
Neither will use a medicine that also has a tonic effect on antihistamines and immunomodulatory drugs, as it can lead to side effects and will not improve the development and outcome of the disease.
During the treatment with antibacterial drugs, the child has a disorder in the intestinal microflora. In this case, the pediatrician will prescribe probiotics.
- Rioflora Immuno.
To eliminate toxins after treatment the doctor can prescribe sorbents.
If the disease is caused by a viral infection, no antibiotics should be taken. Treatment in the intensive care ward and oxygen respiration will be required.
Performing all the doctor's instructions, observing bed rest, in the absence of complications the child will be on the mend, and during the month there will be a residual cough, a slight weakness in the body. If a SARS form of pneumonia is present, the therapy can be delayed.
In the course of effective treatment, the child's walks can be switched to normal mode for 6-10 days of illness. Restoration is allowed after 3 weeks. If the course of the disease is not severe, physical, sports activities are allowed after 6 weeks. In the case of complicated pneumonia after 12 weeks.
It is important not to forbid children to walk and move more, while trying to avoid overheating and hypothermia, dressing the child in the weather.
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Pulmonary inflammation – symptoms in children: diagnosis of pneumonia
The disease is infectious in nature and represents inflammation of lung tissue. Thanks to modern medicine, pneumonia mortality has been drastically reduced, but parents need to know how to recognize a child's illness at an early stage – this will help them cope with it more quickly and easily.
Pneumonia is an insidious pathology that often begins asymptomatically or similar to other diseases. However, she does have certain specific characteristics. Parents should take their child to a doctor if they notice that these first symptoms of pneumonia have begun to appear:
- deep, constant cough;
- high body temperature (over 38 degrees), which does not fall for at least three days in a row;
- high body temperature (over 38 degrees), which does not fall for at least three days in a row/li>
- wheezing, rapid breathing (children 1 year old or less have more than 60 breaths per minute, children 2 years old have 50 breaths, children 3 years old and older have 40 breaths and more);
- Li>Lack of appetite (this is because the virus affects not only the lungs but also the intestines, reducing appetite, causing diarrhea, vomiting, nausea);
- manifestation of blue on the face, swelling of the lower limbs, the child's lips are pale (inflammation of the lungs disturbed blood flow in a small circle due to which there may be cardiopulmonary insufficiency);
- develops tachycardia;
- there is a contraction of the chest;
- CNS pathologies may occur (these extrapulmonary symptoms may make children irritable, restless, and may lead to apathy, drowsiness, or listlessness);
- Children with lung inflammation lose weight (sometimes to a critical point).
With bronchitis, the disease has nothing in common. Bronchial pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the bronchial walls. The risk group includes infants and children under three years of age.
Staphylococcus, pneumococcus, streptococcus can cause pathology.
Bronchopneumonia does not always develop in children due to external infection, for example, pneumococcal disease inside the body is often activated in other lung and non-hazardous diseases.
Focal lesions are concentrated mainly in bronchioles, but can also be detected in the lungs.
Depending on where the respiratory tract has bronchopneumonia, a distinction is made between bilateral, left and right hand pathology.
To confirm the diagnosis, children undergo a bronchoscopy and chest X-ray. Suspicion of bronchial pneumonia is possible if these symptoms are present:
- wheezing when breathing;
- fever, up to 39 degrees and above (in case of SARS, this symptom is not present, so even without fever parents should show their child to the doctor as soon as possible, otherwise the disease will lead to severe complications);
Speciality and danger of this type of pneumonia is that it affects the lowest parts of the organ, preventing gas exchange processes. Double-sided pneumonia is characterized by these signs:
- the child's temperature does not return to normal for more than 3 days;
- after acute respiratory viral infections or acute respiratory infections, the overall state of health does not normalize after a week or even deteriorates;
- rattle rattles appear, wet coughing begins (not necessarily with sputum);
- Whistling, whistling, whistling can be heard while breathing;
- the child becomes difficult to breathe;
- Pain syndrome may occur, which is localized in the lower lungs (usually coincides with cough attacks);
- the child's breathing becomes frequent (average number of breaths is 40 per minute).
This form of disease is much more common in children than in others, due to the anatomical structure of the bronchial tree on the right side. For example, the main right bronchus has a top-down oblique directionality, which facilitates the movement of viruses to the lower lung, where they reproduce very quickly. Right-hand pneumonia is associated with the following symptoms in children:
- Extraction of sputum;
- Temperature growth, sweating;
- blue skin in the nasolabial part of the face;
- Leukocytosis (this symptom can only be determined if a blood test is performed);
- Heart rate and breathing rate increase.
In case of viral pneumonia, fever is not a necessary symptom. The key signs of the disease are muscle weakness, dry coughing, rapid fatigue/sleepiness. In the course of infection in children, the main symptoms of viral pneumonia are severe coughing with ulcerations and fever rates as high as 38-40 degrees Celsius.
This disease is much more dangerous than right-sided pneumonia because it has serious irreversible consequences.
Focuses in the left lobe of the organ indicate exhaustion of the child's body after the previous disease (colds, bronchitis, surgery). As a result, immunity is weak and unable to fight disease-causing organisms.
Often, due to the poor severity of the symptoms, treatment for the pathology begins late. Left-hand pneumonia is characterized by
- nausea, vomiting, headaches, whining or stabbing sensations in the left chest;
- wet cough with sputum, dyspnea, sluggishness (during the development of the pathology cough can be transformed into purulent with characteristic blood streaks);
- strong and sharp increase in body temperature, chills;
gradual increase in pain during deep breathing, a possible short-term loss of consciousness.
Roots of the lung is the zone of entry into the main bronchial organ, bronchial and pulmonary arteries, lymphatic vessels, veins, nerve plexus. Root pneumonia affects this area and is caused by bacterial infection. The clinical picture of the disease in children is characterized by such symptoms:
- the cough, shortness of breath;
- high temperature;
- high sweating.
Pulmonary Infectious Inflammation
Disease has two forms – primary and secondary. In the first case, pneumonia develops as an independent pathology, in the second case it occurs against the background of other infections (influenza, sinusitis). A baby can get sick at any age, even a newborn baby. Signs of pneumonia in a child depend on the type of inflammation:
- Croup form is characterized by the lesion of only one part of the lungs (right or left). At the same time, children immediately increase the temperature up to 39-40 degrees Celsius. Painfulness is felt in the peritoneum and chest area, coughing is characterized by sputum, and red rashes appear on the body.
- Focal infectious pneumonia is usually diagnosed in small children under 3 years of age, and the disease is rare in children 4 years of age and older. Pneumonia affects all lungs and develops after bronchitis. The first signs of pneumonia in children are high fever, deep, dry cough. The pathology can only be cured by prolonged use of medications selected by the doctor.
- Staphilococcal type is more likely to affect the infant than older children. The main symptoms of pneumonia in this case are vomiting, shortness of breath, coughing rales, and heavy breathing. With timely treatment, the pathology retreats after 1.5-2 months, after the baby has to go through a ten-day rehabilitation.
- Segmental appearance only partially affects the lungs, with symptoms of disease will be poor sleep, lack of appetite, lethargy, fever within 38 degrees. Because inflammation of the lungs is hidden, it's very difficult to detect the disease at first.