Table of child development by months up to one year: peculiarities of growing up of the child
Child development up to one year by months
The development of a child is understood as changes in time, not only with his height, weight, motor skills, but also changes related to the perception of the world, speech, thinking, interaction with others.
In the first year of a child's life, the processes of physical development occur most intensively, while other spheres change less.
Track the development of the child up to one year, and this article will help to evaluate its correctness.
Physical development norms
Physical development norms allow us to assess the conformity of a child's biological age according to his or her anthropometric indicators to his or her actual “passport” age.
It should be remembered that such an assessment should not be done once, but regularly to get an idea of the pace of physical development, which serves as an additional criterion for its correctness.
Periodic visits to the paediatrician will help to draw the right conclusion and pay attention to the health of the child.
An anthropometric measure of a child under one year is:
- body length;
- body mass;
- bosom circumference;
- head circumference.
All of these indicators are quite variable and depend on a number of factors: nutrition, heredity, hormonal background, gender, external factors (care, physical activity, sleep, and even family atmosphere). The first is a rough estimate of physical development, while the second is more accurate and reliable.
Estimation by the method of approximate calculations regardless of the sex of the child
In using this method, empirical formulas are used to calculate anthropometric data for children of 1 year of age (A.V. Mazurin, I.M. Vorontsov, 1999).
This method first assumes a mandatory assessment of growth, and then all other indicators.
If there are growth disorders, the calculation of all other indicators (body weight, head circumference, chest circumference) is carried out on the length of the body that will correspond to age.
Discrepancies obtained in the course of the calculations should be included in the age range specified in the table, otherwise the conclusion is made about the violation of physical development.
Example of calculation
Age of the boy 1 month. Height – 53 cm, body weight – 4.3 kg, chest circumference – 36 cm, head circumference – 36 cm
- By every missing month of up to 6 months is deducted 2.5 cm (2.5*5=12.5 cm), 66-12.5=53.5 cm.
- The difference between the actual growth and the one that should be 53.5-53=0.5 cm.
This is the average growth rate.
- By each missing month up to 6 months are deducted 800 g (5*800=4000 g), 8000 – 4000 =4000 g.
- The difference between the actual mass and the one that should be 4300-4000 = 300 g,
- Is within 1 age range (800 g) for this age.
- This is the average weight.
Growth and weight do not exceed the boundaries of one age range by average value, i.e. Weight corresponds to height.
- By each missing month of up to 6 months is deducted 2 cm (2*5=10 cm), 45-10 =35 cm.
- the difference between the actual chest circumference and the one that should be 36-35=1 cm.
- From 1 age range (2 cm) for this age.
- This is the average breast circumference.
Child head circumference.
- For each missing month of up to 6 months is subtracted by 1.5 cm (1.5*5=7.5 cm), 43-7.5=35.5 cm
- The difference between the actual circumference of the head and the one that should be 36-35.5=0.5 cm.
- It is within 1 age range (1.5 cm) for this age.
- This is the average head circumference.
The obtained values are characteristic of the average harmonious, proportional to the physical development.
Evaluation by anthropometric standards for boys and girls
Anthropometric standards are determined by calculating the mean values of anthropometric parameters obtained when examining groups of children of the same sex and age.
Method of sigmal deviations
Based on the use of tables of sigmal deviations, which contain the average anthropometric values (M) depending on the age and sex of the child and the corresponding sigmal deviations (δ).
Find the difference between the average value and the individual and divide by the corresponding sigmal deviation. Consistently find deviations from height, body weight, chest circumference. The values obtained are evaluated as follows:
- Low – from M-2δ and below
- Lower than average – from M-1δ to M-2 δ
- Medium – from M-1δ to M+1δ
- You average – from M+1δ to M+2δ
- High – from M+2δ and above.
Boy's age is 1 month. Height – 53 cm, body weight – 4.3 kg
- Factual growth of a child is 53 cm, the average growth of a boy of 1 month according to the table of sigmal deviations is 54.21 cm
- One sigma for this age is 2.31 cm. The difference between the actual growth and the one that should be 53-54.21 = -1.21 cm, which is less than one sigma (-1.21:2.31 = 0.5 sigma).
- This is the average growth rate.
- Factual body weight of a child is 4.3 kg, the average weight of a boy of 1 month according to the table of sigmal deviations is 4.22 kg.
- One sigma for the given age is 0.54. The difference between the actual mass and the one that should be 4.3-4.22 = 0.08 kg, which is less than one sigma (0.08:0.54 = 0.15 sigma).f. Body weight corresponds to growth – development is harmonious.
Estimation of anthropometric parameters is carried out according to special tables. These tables reflect changes in the selected indicators (height, weight, chest and head circumference) among children of the same age group. They are easy and convenient to use.
Monthly to one-year (clickable)
Breast circumference and head circumference of girls up to one-year height and weight of girls up to one-year height of girls Breast circumference and head circumference of boys up to one-year height and body weight of boys up to one-year height and body weight of boys up to one-year heightbr>
The columns of the central tables represent the quantitative limits of the selected attribute for a certain proportion or percentage (centile) of healthy children according to age and sex. Intervals between the center columns are called zones or corridors, the number of which is 8.
For example, if a center column of 90% and 97% shows a center column of 3% in the table to determine the weight of a boy aged 1 month, then out of the entire sample of children, taken for 100% only 3% will have a mass of 5.1 to 5.4 kg.
Thus, there is no need to calculate anything and depending on the location of the central corridor you can evaluate the physical development of the child by the selected indicators.
- corridor 1 (up to 3%) – “very low”;
- corridor 2 (3% to 10%) – “low”;
- corridor 3 (10% to 25%) – “below average”;
- Corridor 4 (25% to 75%) – “medium”;
- corridor 5 (75% to 90%) – “above average”;
- corridor 6 (90% to 97%) – “high”;
- corridor 7 (97%) – “very high”.
Example, if a boy's body length of 1 month is 55 cm, he falls into the fifth central corridor and is above average. Similarly, centrifugal corridors are defined for the remaining indicators. The difference between the two selected corridors must be no more than one, otherwise the child's development will be considered disharmonious.
Indices of physical development
Get an idea of the harmony of body build and nutritional status.
L. I. Chulitskaya Index (fatness index).
(3 shoulder circumferences + hip circumference + shin circumference)-body length
The rate of 20-25 cm is considered the norm for infants. A decrease in the index indicates malnutrition.
child from birth to the year
Chest circumference (see)-1/2 height (see)
Characterizes the development of the chest and baby nutrition. For infants it is considered the norm of 13.5-10 cm.
How to correctly measure body length, head and chest circumference
The body length of children in their first two years of life is measured using a horizontal rostometer. Place the child on the surface of the rostomer in such a way that the head is pressed against its fixed strip and the body and limbs are stretched out as far as possible. The mobile bar of the rostomer is pressed against the child's heels and the readings are recorded.
For measuring the child's body weight in the first year of life, the scales are used, on which the diaper is placed beforehand and the readings are set to “zero”.
For the purpose of measuring the circumference of the baby's head, the breast circumference is adjusted to an upright position and a centimetre-long ribbon is applied so that the circumference of the breast circumference is measured in the
Black circumference is measured in the lying position of the baby. A centimetre of tape is applied at the back at the lower corners of the blades, in front of the upper edge of the nipple circles.
measurement of body length, weight, head and chest circumference.
Psychomotor development of the child from birth to one year
Includes mental level and motor (motor) level. Mental development takes into account speech development, interaction with other people, etc. Motor development takes into account general motor activity and fine motor skills.
The level of psychomotor development is assessed by observing the child's visual, auditory responses.
One of the methods for assessing psychomotor development is the empirical method (empirical testing), which takes into account nerve-psychological development indicators.
Calendar of Child Development: what does your child learn every month from birth to one year
Child Development Calendar: What your child learns every month from birth to the year
Children really grow up very quickly.
Yesterday, when you brought a newborn baby from the hospital, you did not even think about the fact that today in your apartment will run a little one-year-old man.
Of course, you are concerned about the questions of whether your child is developing properly, in time to acquire the necessary skills.
Tracing your child's development by months to a year and checking it against the recommendations of paediatricians, neurologists, and psychologists, you won't miss a thing and can detect and correct possible deviations in time.
To keep in mind the moments of growing up, create a special notebook in which you will describe the development of the child by months up to 1 year.
Table indicating the time of occurrence of a skill will be interesting not only to you, but also to your grown up baby in the future.
First month of a newborn's life is also called the adaptation period. The child learns to live outside the usual environment – a warm mother's belly. At this time, the baby:
Task of the closest relatives – to put the child in a comfortable environment: do not overheat and not overcool. About it in article temperature in a room for a newborn>>>>, in time to change diapers and to feed.
Of course, it is important to give to a crumb the love: to carry on handles, to talk, to sing songs.
By the age of one month the child already pays attention to bright toys and can watch them with eyes and turn his head. In the article the information about when the newborn starts to see>>>> The first color the newborn sees is red.
By a note! Very useful will be an exercise: take a bright, better red toy, and drive at a distance of 30 cm on behalf of the child from left to right, from bottom to top. Monthly baby can already follow the movements of the toy.
In a month, the child is already turning the head to the sound. Find out when the newborn baby starts to hear>>>> You can check it, time rattle left and right of the baby.
In the first month of life, the child saves some of the newborn's birth reflexes, which will disappear completely by the fourth month of life:
- suction reflex (can suck objects in the mouth);
- swimming (if you put a crumb in the abdominal water down, the child will make swim-like movements);
- grabbing (if you touch the palm of your hand, the child will squeeze the cam);
- search reflex (if you touch the cheek, looking for the mother's chest);
- reflex steps – if you put the child on the legs (while holding), he can “step”.
If you put your child on the stomach, he will try to lift the head slightly; he will train his neck, back and shoulders.
Physically developed kids are already starting to hold the head by the time they're one month old.
Find out more about what a child should be able to do in one month>>>>
And also in my video tutorial:
Second month of a child's development is sometimes referred to as the “month of recovery”. Your baby now sleeps less, can stay awake for up to 50 minutes.
The baby's eyesight and hearing improve, and the baby is able to see objects from a distance of 30 centimeters to half a meter. A baby can spend about 15 minutes in his or her crib looking at the mobile phone or other toys.
- In two months of age, kids are already raising their heads and holding them upright for a while.
- Some babies already know how to turn from barrel to barrel. Learn more about when a child starts to turn over>>>
- The child learns his or her pens – he or she can bring his or her fists to his or her mouth and suck them;
- The infant reflexes are still preserved, but begin to fade away little by little;
- Emotional sphere is developing as well. In two months the so-called “revival complex” is formed. This skill occupies an honorable place in the child development table; it is one of the most important milestones up to a year confirming the normal functioning of the nervous system;
- The kid can already get to know his parents, rejoices at them. When you lean over the crib, the baby starts to pull the arms and legs quickly and quickly;
- In two months a child can hum – makes vowel sounds, sometimes even can say “agha”, “agha”, “agha”, “abu”. Kids like their own speech, they're happy to listen to it. In the article, the information about when the baby starts to agukat>>>
On the second month of life, your child is likely to give you his first conscious smile. If that doesn't happen, it's okay; it means it's gonna happen a little later. Find out when a child starts smiling>>>
Change with the child, sing to him/her, you will see that the baby will sing to you!
Child development up to one year by month. Peculiarities of child development up to one year
Each parent worries – is the child okay? In the first year of his life it is worth watching his development with special attention, because only now his ability to learn the most high, and their speed is admirable.
You have the opportunity to enjoy each of his new victory: the very first timid smile, the first attempt to do something with his position, whether it be a revolution from the stomach to the back, an attempt to sit down or go independently. This calendar of your baby's monthly development will be a real cheat sheet and a clue that will help to mark every milestone in his development and not miss anything.
For parents themselves to be able to track some of the new opportunities for babies by months of life, experts have developed certain norms.
They roughly determine what exactly and when should learn to do the child.
When parents are watching their children closely, creating all the conditions for their child to develop well, a healthy and happy child will improve in each of the areas:
- Physical improvement – the height and weight of the baby will increase rapidly;
- Connective improvement – manifestation and use of the ability to learn and remember;
- Social improvement – the baby will quickly divide the surrounding people into their own and strangers, learn to react accordingly;
- Motor development – gradually there will be strength to sit first, then he will be able to get up and then run;
- Speech development – gradually words in the language in which people around him speak will begin to form from the “agu”.
Also important is the control over the development of the baby by the district paediatrician and specialist doctors (ENT, ophthalmologist, surgeon, etc.) It is necessary to visit the hospital regularly at 2.4, 6, 9 and 12 months.
At the doctor's appointment:
- examines the baby himself and his general state;
- evaluates the set of weight and height of the baby – the main milestones of development – and compares it with the normal table;
- Answers to any questions parents may have about their child, possible abnormalities noticed at home, be it a rash or shaking chin without cause;
makes recommendations regarding crumbs, food and vaccination dates.
If the baby is born prematurely, or with obvious difficulties and developmental disabilities, he or she will be under special supervision of a paediatrician and other specialists during the first twelve months.
Not critical, if the first time such babies settle down in this world slower than their peers and do not develop so quickly. It is necessary to have a dynamic in their development so that the child learns something new every week.
If the cooperation between the parents of the child and doctors is maximal and all the instructions are followed, then over time the difficulties in learning new things in this world pass away.
Special cases worth considering in the development of a child in their first year of life
There are situations in which you should not expect another visit to a doctor, but simply go to a paediatrician or other qualified doctor immediately:
- Kid doesn't care if he eats or doesn't have any appetite at all for some time, there is no change in weight;
- Suddenly the child stopped reacting not only to the parents' voices, but also to any loud sounds;
- The child's behavior became very sluggish, and what he had learned before – stopped doing.
How can I help my baby?
Partners who have patience and participation, a certain regime, hygienic rules, and an orderly meal – problems are rare.
Partners who love their children sincerely will not forget to go out with their baby and talk to them, because they understand how important it is to the crumbs. The development of the baby at first is almost 100% dependent only on loved ones.
Despite his young age, he can already read books, sing and tell him poems.
And those moms and dads who think that the child is still young for this and still does not understand anything – are wrong. From birth, the baby is naturally curious, and that's what most of his development is about.
However, he's watching the world around him carefully.
And in the future, they'll build their behavior on what their parents see them do, so make sure they don't let the baby notice anything bad.
This is about watching different TV shows. For many years now, families have been working with TV instead of babysitting. The kid is not yet an experienced young man, who is unable to distinguish between good and evil.
Therefore, the crumb will repeat the actions of each character he saw. If he's had to see some unfortunate events with his family, he'll have to make sure he's quickly distracted from the situation.
At this age, it's very easy to do a trick like this – any bright toy will attract his attention and make him distracted.
Kid's Development Calendar from 0 to a year
The most important thing is that you need such a baby – that your mother was next to him. All you have to do is show the baby that Mom's not going anywhere, talk, hold on to herself. After all, the last time he lived next to you and was in complete safety. It's not hard to keep a child at peace after birth.
In the first two weeks after birth, the child will only settle in and get used to living in this new world for him, so he will act according to his unconditional reflections:
- Sucking reflex – if you touch your baby's lips, the baby will have to move them as if sucking;
- Grabbing reflex/strong> – the child squeezes his fist when a finger is placed in it;
- Solar reflex – the child immediately pulls his leg if you touch his foot.
Beginning from the third week after birth, the child already begins to have the first conditional reflexes. This will mean that his development continues, and has entered a new phase, because now the baby is ready to learn new things. The child knows very well that if he cries loudly, he'll see his mother immediately.
New skills are crumbs in the first month:
- crumbs can focus on the objects and persons in the vicinity;
- distinguishes mom's hands and voice from all others;
- starts to pronounce its first sounds when someone talks;
- tries to raise the head, actively moves the handles and legs.
New skills are crumbs in two months:
- starts looking for the source of sound through the eyes;
- behaves much more actively if you talk to him/her, actively smiling;
- holds the head much better from
- if it is on its side, it will try to turn on its back;
- the baby's speech becomes rich in different sounds and loud vowels.
The baby's new skills in three months:
The moment the baby is fully adapted among his family members, the development of the baby enters a new stage.
- with her sounds she tries to talk to him;
- if there are toys hanging up near him, she tries to hit them with her hands;
- in the “lying on her tummy” position she already rests firmly on her forearms and holds her head;
- starts to laugh loudly and easily recognises the faces of his parents;
- tries to rest his feet if you hold him under his arms.
4 – 6 months, new skills
In a family there comes calmness, when the kid celebrates his four months.
After all, the mother is already well versed in his needs, quickly understands that it is his concern, colic is almost gone or completely gone, so the screams and hysteria are less and less.
Most babies at this age are no longer awake at night and so parents can rest until morning. At this age, the child is already well aware of his or her name and actively learns about the world around him or her.
Been five months he's already trying to pronounce something all day long, and some sounds can be sung all day long or even for days. He begins to share adults, to be afraid of strangers, if the mother is not with him.
True, in her presence may even smile someone else. At this age, the child starts to talk to his relatives: he smiles and pulls pens, says something to be noticed, at last.
He is easily overturned from back to “lying on his tummy”.
K six months the crumb is already trying to crawl up to the toy of his choice, even if it is 20 cm away from him, trying to get up in his crib and moving toys from one hand to another.
First anniversary of the baby – his six months. At this age, a new stage of its development begins. From six months to nine months he learns to crawl, and it takes all his attention.
He shouldn't be discouraged, on the contrary, it's better to praise and encourage him.
Those children who have not crawled well or refused to do so face a problem – when they have to do several tasks at once, they will have difficulty doing so.
In seven months the crumb sits easily if there is a support