Urine analysis table in children: Normal and abnormal values
Urine analysis in general – table, norm and decoding of results in adults
Problems of decoding general urine analysis in adults, children, and pregnant women
General urine analysis is a clinical study necessary to make an accurate diagnosis. In laboratory conditions, the physico-chemical parameters of this biological liquid are determined, and the sediment is separately diagnosed.
Disturbances in the work of the body are primarily manifested in the composition of urine. By detecting abnormalities in time, it is possible to avoid serious diseases.
Property urine collection
Urine testing is almost effortless. Collect the liquid immediately after sleeping in a washed jar. The genital area must be rinsed before the procedure to prevent bacteria from entering.
For the most accurate results, alcoholic beverages and diuretics should not be used the day before the urine test. Fresh fruits and vegetables can change the colour of the liquid unnecessarily. A medical limitation is that cystoscopy should be performed no later than one week before the test.
Women should not be allowed to get into menstrual urine during the menstrual cycle.
The laboratory accepts a fixed volume of urine, the guideline is 50 ml. The collected analysis should be delivered to the clinic no later than 2 hours after the fence.
- If the urine cannot be delivered within this period of time, a jar should be placed in the refrigerator. The result of the analysis can be obtained within the next day.
Encrypting the general urine analysis in adults, norms
Each parameter in the urine test result card is either normal or indicates a certain disease. For laboratory diagnosis, not only the composition of the fluid is important, but also the color, consistency, and odor.
Table: the general analysis of the urine norm and the decoding of the results in adults
Between the table shows in detail all the indicators of the analysis and the possible diseases that are indicated by abnormalities (increase decrease).
|Density||1010 – 1022 g / l|
|PH||reaction pH||sour 4 – 7|
|PRO (protein)||0.033 g / l|
|GLU (glucose)||0.8 mmol / l|
|KET (ketone bodies)||no (negative)|
|LEU (leukocytes)||0 – 3 (m) 0 – 6 (g)|
|BLD (erythrocytes)||(m) singular (g) 2 – 3|
|Epithelium||up to 10|
|NIT (nitrates and bacteria)||no|
Let's stop at each indicator separately.
With the assessment of the color of the liquid, the decoding of the urine analysis begins. In adults, the norm is shades from light yellow to saturated straw. Other color variations indicate organ failure. Deviations are as follows:
- Pale urine – indicates excessive fluid intake, pancreatic dysfunction (diabetes mellitus and non-diabetes mellitus) and renal failure.
- Ochre color – classic dehydration from intoxication or heart failure.
- Brown urine – liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis), red blood cell destruction after some infections, especially malaria. May be caused by bladder stones, kidney infarction, pyelonephritis (acute current), urinary tract cancer. No danger.
- Red-brown urine – a consequence of sulfonamide use.
- Grayish tint with a pronounced precipitate – kidney stones, tuberculosis or kidney infarction, rapid destruction of red blood cells. The use of streptocid and pyramidon also gives this shade.
- Black – Michelli's disease (hereditary form of anemia), melanoma.
The color of urine affects the food taken the day before its delivery. To find out the exact result, it is not advisable to eat dyeing fruits and take the above medications.
Level of transparency
Urine should not be cloudy for 2 hours after its collection. Possibly a small presence of mucus and epithelial cells. Loss of transparency is possible if the liquid is contained:
- Leucocytes – cystitis, pyelonephritis;
- Erythrocytes – prostatitis, urolithiasis, cancer;
- Protein cells – glomerulo and pyelonephritis;
- Bacteria – bacterial cystitis, pyelonephritis;
- Excessive amount of epithelium – renal failure;
- Fall of chalk sediments – urolithiasis.
Urine transparency is mostly affected by kidney health. In addition, blurring may occur if hygiene is not maintained during the collection of the analysis. Therefore, if pathological abnormalities are detected, it is shown to repeat the study with another urine.
The given analysis can have a subtle smell. The appearance of a specific aroma indicates inflammatory and rotten processes in the urinary tract:
- The presence of acetone notes in the smell indicates diabetes;
- The similarity of smell and faeces indicates the presence of rectal fistula;
- Ammonia is felt in the urine due to cystitis-induced fermentation processes;
- The smell of rot is caused by the gangrene urinary tract.
Very unpleasant aroma is urine if garlic or horseradish.
Specific gravity (S. G.)
Normal relative density of urine in an adult is 1.005 to 1.028. The increased weight is caused by a lack of fluid intake or excessive wasting (vomiting, diarrhea, fever, excessive sweating).
This process can be caused by diabetes mellitus and toxemia during pregnancy. A decrease in urine output is called oliguria.
The indicator below the norm is caused by renal failure. A high ratio can also be justified by the consumption of large amounts of liquid or diuretics. Zimnitsky's Zimnitsky's 24-hour sample will give a more accurate picture of the specific gravity of the sample, which is taken every 3 hours.
PH urine (acidity level)
>Acidity in the body changes during the day, so the analysis is taken on an empty stomach. During filtration, the kidneys remove hydrogen ions from the bloodstream. PH value of urine is 4-7.
If the PH value is higher than 7:
- Increased amount of potassium and parathormones in the blood;
- Lack of animal food;
- Metabolic, respiratory alkalosis;
- Urinary canal infection.
Performance of acidity increases when taking medicines based on adrenaline and nicotinamide.
If the PH value is lower than 4:
- Dehydration, starvation, fever;
- Diabetes mellitus;
- Consumption of meat products is abundant.
Performance of acidity decreases with diacarb, aspirin, methionine.
Protein in urine (PRO)
Protein in urine should not be (PRO neg). Decryption neg – absence of any component in the general analysis result card. Traces of protein are found after intense exercise or hypothermia.
- Stable positive PRO factor indicates chronic pyelonephritis and hypertension.
Glucose in the urinalysis (GLU)
The presence of sugar in the urine indicates pancreatic problems. Patients are usually diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, diabetes, or excessive carbohydrates in the diet.
Ketone bodies (KET)
This indicator is violated in people who change their diet to lose weight. The positive effect of dieting is noticeable if ketones are present in the urine. The reason for this is that the body synthesizes its own fat reserves.
- Medical reasons: diabetes mellitus, acute pancreatitis, glycogen disease.
Bilirubin is not present in a healthy adult body. Its presence indicates liver disease:
- Virus hepatitis;
- Liver jaundice.
Alcohol and other toxic substances consumed the day before have a similar effect on the test results. In chronic alcoholism, pathological changes are persistent.
Presence of urobilinogen indicates that bile enters the small intestine in excess. Characteristic diseases are constipation, jaundice and initial liver damage.
Hemoglobin in urine analysis
Normally, this indicator should be negative. If hemoglobin from the decomposition of red blood cells enters the urine, then the patient has one of the following pathologies:
- Extensive heart attack;
- Krash syndrome (muscle damage from injuries);
- Sulfide or mushroom poisoning;
- Bleeding in the urinary system.
Hemoglobin is not very common in urine after blood transfusion.
BLD decryption should have no more than 3 units of female and no more than 1 unit of male erythrocytes. If there is a concentration of red bloodbodies in the urine, it means that there are serious problems with the kidneys:
- Nephrotic syndrome, renal infarction;
- Literal disease.
LEU decryption allows up to 6 leucocytes in women's urine and up to 3 in men. It is this indicator that is considered an indicator of the presence of urinary tract and kidney diseases. The diagnosis in leukocytosis can be absolutely any, it is necessary to have a kidney and bladder ultrasound.
Epithelial cells should be normally present in small amounts – up to 10. A larger indicator indicates that there is an inflammatory process. In the laboratory, it is possible to find out which organ is present in the epithelium. This will help diagnose.
Cylinders, salts, bacteria, and parasites are virtually absent in urine. These figures do not always indicate the presence of urinary tract disease. Rather, it's about urine diversion violations.
Pregnant women's urine screening skills
Future mothers should be tested regularly for urine screening. Pregnant women's decoding complies with the classic adult norms.
Inflammatory bladder processes are characteristic of every other woman carrying a fetus – so early diagnosis is important. Kidney pathology is more serious, therefore, it is necessary to examine the kidneys in a hospital.
- Especially important to identify asymptomatic bacteriuria in a timely manner. There are no clinical manifestations, but there are changes in urine – bacteria are detected.
All of this can cause various obstetric complications, so timely administration of permitted antibiotics is required.
Problems of deciphering general urine analysis in children
Encrypting general urine analysis in a child corresponds to the principles of adult diagnosis. Features – more flexible indicators for children under 5 years of age. In a child's urine, unlike an adult, is acceptable:
This is due to the early age of children and the nature of the diet. Cellular inclusions (white blood cells, erythrocytes) should strictly comply with “adult” standards. The card with the results of the general urine analysis should be shown to the pediatrician in a mandatory manner.
Approach to urine analysis
The general urine analysis is needed to determine virtually any disease. It is especially important when it comes to nephritis, nephrosclerosis, nephrosclerosis, pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, urolithiasis and other pathologies of the body's excretory system.
As well as urinary tract diseases, the analysis helps diagnose tumors and inflammations. This examination is called a general clinical examination because it is part of the standard for all complaints from patients.
The general urine analysis is irreplaceable in the following cases:
- Suspicion of inflammation in the renal and urinary canals;
- Transferring of bacterial infection caused by streptococcus (1-2 weeks after recovery);
- The need to find out if the treatment method is right and if there is progress in recovery;
- Additional examination as part of any diagnosis;
- Prophylactic examination of each person 1-2 times a year;
- Exploration of bacteriuria (presence of bacteria in urine) in the absence of any clinical signs.
Based on urine analysis during any diagnosis as well as on blood analysis. The result card shows how the body reacts to the stimulus. Expanded picture helps to clarify several aspects of the interaction between internal systems at once.
Preventive analysis should not be forgotten 1-2 times a year, as any disease is easier to cure at an early stage.
The general analysis of urine in children and the norm of its indicators
The simplest, non-invasive and inexpensive way to study any kind of doctor's practice is to perform a general urine analysis in children and adults. This study is the starting point for any diagnosis, both routine and emergency.
Based on the results, the doctor decides whether further examination of the patient is necessary, or whether the data are sufficient to make a diagnosis.
The general urine analysis (OAM) should not only be taken if there is a suspicion of pathological processes, but also the urine should be examined for prophylaxis.
Every child from birth to one year of life is registered with the local paediatrician.
The list of necessary examinations includes repeated urine and blood tests, consultations with narrow specialists and ultrasound diagnostics of internal organs.
Urine analysis of children should only be encrypted by a specialist with a university degree in medicine, who is the only one who knows the normal meaning of all the indicators that make up the analysis.
The examination of the child by the district paediatrician should be carried out not only when he or she shows signs of illness, but also for preventive purposes
Situations where a child's urine analysis is needed
There are certain indications for a doctor to prescribe urine tests in children of different ages:
- Prophylactic examination, which can help to diagnose the child's health problems in a timely manner. It is carried out for children up to one year of age, three months and when they reach the age of one year, and then annually (once every six months).
- Suspicion of pathological processes in the urinary system (kidneys, bladder or urethra). In this case, the examination is prescribed not only in the presence of complaints in the child, but also in the visual change of color or smell of urine.
- Efficacy monitoring from previous therapy, as well as dynamic monitoring of the patient's condition. It is mandatory to re-test the general urine analysis in the child after a course of treatment with antibiotics and other drugs.
Bad urine analysis in the infant
General urine analysis is based on the microscopic determination of all components of the biological fluid. A laboratory technician or special device counts the elements in the field of view of the microscope.
Sadly, it is often not enough for an accurate diagnosis in children to be made, the overall urine analysis is not enough. To clarify the pathological condition of the resort to the following methods of laboratory diagnosis.
Urinalysis by Nechiporenko. The sample has advantages over general clinical research. First of all, it is a question of greater accuracy and informativeness of the procedure, because the microscopic examination is subject to 1 ml of urine, rather than a single field of view.
Method allows you to determine the number of red blood cells, white blood cells and cylinders in the analysis of urine. When they are increased, the doctor can judge the presence of inflammatory processes in the patient, the presence of bleeding, etc.
Urinalysis Zimnitsky. This study is prescribed for all children with suspected renal malfunctions (especially concentration malfunctions).
A child needs to urinate in sterile containers at regular intervals (every 3 hours).
Next, the laboratory technician examines all 8 bottles, which determine the concentration of all components, the total and portioned volume of urine extracted, the ratio of day and night diuresis, the density of sludge and other indicators.
Sowing urine on nutrient media (bacteriological study). It is necessary if inflammatory processes in the urinary tract are suspected.
To establish the exact nature of the infectious agent, children's urine is sown in a special environment where bacteria can grow (microbial colony).
At the same time, their sensitivity to antibacterial agents from different pharmacological groups is assessed.
Biochemical analysis of urine sludge (daily urine examination). If there are metabolic diseases of different organs and systems of the body, this study is mandatory.
Through biochemistry, it is possible to determine the content of substances such as sodium, potassium, calcium, cylinders, acetone, glucose and others in urine. They can be purchased at the pharmacy. They are necessary for the rapid identification of certain abnormalities in the work of the child's body at home. With the help of these strips it is possible to estimate the acidity of urine, its specific weight, the presence in it of acetone, protein, calcium and other pathological components.
Only a physician with the necessary medical training can correctly decipher the analysis, because only he or she has the necessary knowledge and determines which indicators are within the normal range and which exceed these values.
After the physician receives the finished result of the examination of urine sludge, he or she should evaluate the following indicators.
Normally, it ranges from light yellow to golden straw.
Color intensity is influenced by a variety of factors, such as the nature of food consumed, the amount of fluid consumed during the day, intense exercise, medications, and others.
In addition to physiological reasons, pathological processes in the child's body (e.g. darkening of urine when liver cells are damaged) can also change urine color.
Healthy baby's urine is always transparent and should contain no impurities or inclusions.
If there are impurities that are microscopically detected or visible to the naked eye, it is necessary to exclude the presence of inflammatory processes in the urinary tract.
Urine turbidity is often associated with non-compliance with urine collection rules (poor genital hygiene).
This characteristic determines the density of urine, which reflects the filtration capacity of the nephrotic apparatus of the kidneys. Specific gravity is affected by water stress, diet, medication and time of day.
Urine reaction (pH- urine)
Normal urine sludge in a child has a neutral reaction. Changes in the reaction in the acidic or alkaline direction indicate the beginning of pathological processes.
These cells are always indicators of the onset of inflammation in different parts of the urinary tract. If they are slightly increased, it is worth repeating the analysis, with mandatory compliance with all the rules on urine collection. Normally they are always present in urine, but in very small amounts.
They, like leukocytes, are always in the urine of even healthy children. If their concentration exceeds the maximum permissible values many times, it is necessary to exclude kidney and bladder injuries, inflammatory processes in these organs or the beginning of bleeding from the urinary tract.
Its appearance is due to the sloughing of cells of the surface bladder layer, which is a variant of the norm. When large numbers of epithelial cells are visualized in the microscope, inflammatory diseases (most often cystitis) are diagnosed.
They are protein “impressions” that are formed when a protein passes through the nodule apparatus of the kidneys. Typically, they're completely absent in a healthy child's urine.
Protein can be contained in small amounts in a healthy baby's urine, which is due to its passage through the kidney filter, especially when eating high-protein foods. However, if its concentration is several times higher, kidney disease or other pathological conditions should be excluded.
He is never present in urine deposits in children and adults. The exception to this rule is when the patient has consumed too much sweetness the day before or when the test was preceded by stress. The most common cause of glucosuria is diabetes mellitus or other pancreatic diseases.
Only a very small fraction of the bilirubin normally enters the urine sludge (but not in its pure form, but in the form of a urobilinogen). When the concentration of the substance is many times higher, severe liver and biliary tract diseases are excluded.
Acetone (ketone bodies)
Acetone bodies should not be detected in the urine sludge, even in minimal amounts, as they are toxic products of fat and protein cell decomposition, which is a direct evidence of metabolic disorders.
Must be absent from the urinary tract of children of all ages. If the doctor has found bacterial agents in the urine of the child, the urine should be immediately sent to the bacterial culture to determine the nature of the pathogen. Their appearance indicates the beginning of inflammatory diseases in the urinary system.
The exact nature of the infectious agent in urine can only be determined by sowing it on nutrient media
Ee should not be in the urine or the component content is insignificant. Slime appears in inflammatory processes in the bladder or urethra.
The list of the main indicators of urine sludge and their permissible values are presented in the table below.
|Urine indicators||Normal values|
|Color||Bright yellow or straw. Toddlers can have absolutely colorless urine.|
|Transparency||Transparent urine for children of all ages.|
|Specific gravity||U children under 2 years of age have a urine density of 1002-1015 g/l. For children from 2-3 years old: 1010-1016 g/l. For children aged 4-12 years: 1-12-1025 g/l. For children over 12 years: 1010-1025 g/l.|
|Urine reaction (pH)||4.5-8.0|
|Leukocytes||Not more than 4-6 in girls.No more than 1-3 in boys.|
|Erythrocytes||As absent or no more than 2-3 in sight.|
|Epithelial cells||To 8-10 cells in sight.|
|Slide||Let's keep it small.|
|White||As absent or its values do not exceed 0.033 g/l.|
|Sugar (glucose)||Missing or allowed to rise once in newborns.|
|Bilirubin or bile pigments||Missing|
|Urobilinogen||Not more than 17 microns/l.|
|Soli||Single salt crystals of a newborn|