First signs of worms in children
The main signs of worms in a child
Many parents do not perceive worm invasion as a serious illness.
Its first signs may appear some time after infection and often resemble the symptoms of other diseases. But it is very important to identify the presence of parasites in time to start treatment.
Because they disrupt all internal organs, can lead to allergic reactions and lower immunity.
Diagnosis of the disease
Parental health problems are very common and parents often do not notice that the child has helminthiasis. Many of the symptoms of this disease can be thought of as a cold or intestinal infection. And it's very important to diagnose the disease in time. To do this, parents need to monitor the child's condition more closely, and at the first alarming symptoms check him for worms.
Sometimes parasites can be found in the feces of the child, and kids under a year they can feel through the abdominal wall. But the most common way to diagnose helminthic infestations is by using fecal tests. If there is a suspicion of worm infection but the analysis has not detected them, you need to pass the feces several times. Doctors say that a reliable analysis is obtained by following certain rules.
Sometimes an X-ray or ultrasound is prescribed, which helps to identify the presence of parasites in the liver, lungs and other organs. You can take a blood test. Hemoglobin is reduced in hemoglobin infestation, and eosinophils and erythrocyte settling rate are increased.
General symptoms of worm infections
It is believed that almost everyone is infected with worms. There is even a theory that it is parasites that cause most diseases.
Emportant! The danger is that many helminths may not appear for years. Even when symptoms are pronounced, it is very difficult to determine that a child has helminthiasis.
All the more so because each type of parasite has a different manifestation of the disease. What are the common signs of worms in a child?
- Increased salivation, especially at night, the child wakes up with wet spots on the pillow;
- disturbance of appetite – the child refuses to eat, eats badly or, conversely, is constantly hungry;
- gastrointestinal dysfunction is disturbed – the child is suffering from constipation or diarrhea, abdominal pain, dysbiosis and meteorism;
- Deficiency of iron, B vitamins and other trace elements, which causes a decrease in hemoglobin, the development of anemia, urinary incontinence may be observed
- brittle nails, loss and dullness of hair, peeling of the skin;
- various allergic reactions – frequent manifestation of worm infections;
- a child often has colds, nasopharyngeal and genital inflammatory diseases.
Important! You can understand about the presence of worms by the fact that the child is pale, quickly tired. These children are weak, lose weight or do not gain weight at all.
Helminthiasis in children under 2 years of age leads to physical and mental retardation. It's believed that children squeak their teeth in their sleep because of the worms.
Health intoxication with helminthiasis
After infection, the child's body begins to be poisoned with parasitic products. The first signs of this may appear after a couple of weeks, if there are so many worms. What are the symptoms of body intoxication:
- Headaches, dizziness, nausea, syncope;
- Sleep disturbance: drowsiness or restless sleep;
- irritability, capriciousness, outbursts of anger;
- muscular weakness, rapid fatigue;
- appetite disorder, nausea;
- Children after 7 years of age have a marked decline in memory, concentration, lack of perseverance, and learning disabilities;
- if a child with worms is vaccinated, he or she may have a strong allergic reaction to it.
Toddlers are also infected with helminthiasis if the mother does not follow good hygiene practices. The symptoms of the presence of parasites in the infant are the same as those of older children. But there are some peculiarities:
- the baby eats badly, loses weight, or almost does not add to it;
- he becomes capricious, often cries, sleeps restlessly;
- the intestinal functions are violated, the child has diarrhea and constipation;
- The baby's skin is pale and dark circles under the eyes;
- allergic rashes on the hands and feet;
- can increase the temperature;
- such babies lag behind others not only in weight, but also in height and development.
Signs of infestation with ascarids
Statistically, most children under 5 years of age have been infected with ascarids at least once.
This type of helminthiasis is considered to be the most dangerous because it occurs very often, and these worms can affect many internal organs, cause intestinal obstruction or asphyxia.
This is because the small larvae of an ascarium hatching in the small intestine spread blood throughout the body. That's how they get into the lungs, heart, liver, gallbladder. The signs of this stage of the disease are the following:
- dry cough, sometimes with blood additives;
- development of bronchitis, pneumonia or bronchial asthma;
- increase in temperature;
- weakness and drowsiness;
- increase in lymph nodes, liver;
- allergic reactions.
From a few months onwards, the ascarids move back into the intestine and parasitize in it.
It is important! This condition can be asymptomatic for a long time. Only if the child's immunity is reduced or if the infection is massive can such signs be noticed:
- stomach pains that may be contractions;
- inflammatory mucous or skin diseases;
- frequent colds;
- Diarrhea or constipation, nausea, vomiting, meteorism;
Sleep disturbance, anxiety, irritability, and other neuropsychiatric disorders;
Blood pressure may sometimes decrease.
Signs of Enterobiasis
This disease is caused by small, rounded worms called pinworms. They're parasitic in a man's intestines. At night, the female comes out of the aisle to lay eggs. This causes severe itching around the anus of the child, which is a major sign of the presence of pinworms. Enterobiasis can also be suspected from other symptoms:
- the child sleeps restlessly, turns around, often screams and jumps at night;
- Redness and irritation in and around the anus, inflammation of the skin by combing;
- girls may have enuresis even after 6 years of age;
- Spikes can crawl into the genitals and cause vulvovaginitis and inflammatory diseases of the genitals;
- glists can accumulate in the blind intestine and cause acute appendicitis;
- these parasites live in the intestines, so there is often a dysfunction, dysbiosis, diarrhea or constipation;
- dry mouth occurs.
Rare parasite species
Rarely occur in our country with other wicker invasions. Most often the child gets infected with such worms from cats or when eating poorly fried fish. How rare helminthiasis appears in a child:
- high-eyedness is not accompanied by pronounced symptoms – the disease can be suspected on the general signs of worm infections: abdominal pain, capriciousness;
- Opistorchosis causes fever, rash, upper respiratory tract inflammation, liver pain, joint pain and heart problems;
- toxocarosis most often affects young children, and they have an increase in lymph nodes, joint damage, severe facial edema, allergic rashes on the skin with intolerable itching and inflammatory eye disease.
- infection with a wide ribbon can be intestinal disorders, abdominal pain, allergies, and signs of mineral deficiency;
- often in children there are also giardias – not worms, but microscopic parasites, which also settle in the intestine and other internal organs. They cause gastrointestinal dysfunction or gallbladder inflammation, their presence can also be determined by yellow plaque on the tongue and tooth creaking.
Each mother should know what symptoms indicate the presence of parasites in the child's body. This way, it will be able to cure it in time and prevent complications.
First signs of worms in children
The child's health depends primarily on the child's parents, so it is important to be alert to the slightest malaise in the child's small body.
The signs of worms in the child are very diverse, but the diagnosis of the most common helminthiasis is easy.
What are these worms?
Hellminths, or helminths, are worms that parasitize the human body.
The first information about them can be derived from the works of Hippocrates, who introduced terms such as “Helminthos” and “Ascaridos” into medical practice. Avicenna in her main work “Canon of Medical Science” gave recommendations for the treatment of pinworms. Despite this, mankind still hasn't been able to get rid of the parasites.
In the majority, each species of worm is distributed on the certain territory that is connected with its reproduction cycle. However, there are parasites found everywhere, such as pinworms and ascarids.
Different incidence rates are observed depending on:
- different age groups: ascariasis, enterobiasis, and trichocephalosis prevail in children;
- ascariasis and trichocephalosis are more typical for people engaged in vegetable growing;
- echinococcosis, alveococcosis is more common in hunters and their families;
- opistorchosis develops when fishing or eating raw, poorly thermally treated fish;
- geographical area.
Helminthiasis is a common name for worm-caused diseases. They are usually divided into two groups:
- Geoglmintoses – no intermediate host is required for parasite development. This is how ascariasis, enterobiasis, trichocephallosis and others arise.
- Biohelminthiasis – for the full development of the helminth, an intermediate host is needed, through which the parasite is delivered to the human body (the final host). Such worms include suckers, tapeworms, trichinelles.
- Helmintozoonosis are diseases caused by helminths that can infest humans and animals. The most common are alveococcosis, echinococcosis, trichinellosis.
After localization in the human body, helminths are divided into intestinal and extraintestinal.
Infection can occur in different ways:
- alimentary, characterized by the arrival of eggs of worms with unwashed fruits and vegetables, with poorly treated meat and fish;
- waterway is used when using unboiled water from water bodies;
- contact – in case of non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, when helminth eggs are transmitted from one person to another through a handshake, toys and other items of personal use;
- the cut-throat pathway is characteristic of helminthiasis, in the development of which the carrier is a blood-sucking insect;
- cryplacental pathway of infection is very rare.
Practically, almost everyone has had helminthiasis in their lifetime, most of them as children. This is due to the natural development of a small organism, because parents are physically unable to protect their children from every grain of sand and dust. However, parasitologists have observed that there is a risk group for helminthiasis. These are children:
- from large families, where it is difficult for parents to keep an eye on all children and often their functions are transferred to the shoulders of senior “helpers”;
- from socially disadvantaged families, where there is no one to care for the child;
- long and often sick:
- up to one year has suffered from respiratory disease more than 4 times (inclusive);
- up to 3 years – more than 6 episodes of acute respiratory infections (inclusive) per year;
- older than 5 years – 4 and more acute respiratory infections per year;
- received unadapted artificial feeding, which leads to the late formation of protective mechanisms of the child's body;
- with low level of hygienic skills due to underdevelopment.
4-5 years – 5 and more episodes per year;
If the child is at risk, it is not a sentence, it is an urgent recommendation to parents to be more attentive to their children's health.
General signs of helminthic infestation in children
Available in the body, helminths can cause a variety of pathological processes that depend on their life cycle.
Mechanical damage to the digestive tract mucous membranes
If it is not uncomfortable for an adult, it is noticeable for the child, which can be manifested in the disruption of the entire gastrointestinal tract. The most common symptoms are poor appetite, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoeal dysfunction or constipation.
Hellminthes' nutrition at human expense
The digestive system works hard to provide the body with the necessary nutrients, and the intestinal parasite absorbs these nutrients.
The degree of harm to the body depends on the degree of invasion. At the same time, the child ceases to gain weight, he develops signs of hypovitaminosis and lack of trace elements, which is manifested by irritability, poor sleep, rapid fatigue, dry skin and other general symptoms.
All the helminths meet hematophages – parasites that feed on human blood. These include moisture-eyed, ankylostomatic. Because of the presence of an adult worm in the child's body, anemia develops over time.
Influence of various organs due to migration of larvae and adult helminthes
The most common causes of impairment of gallbladder function are the severe cases when the gallbladder is switched off. Liver, lung, and brain damage can lead to dysfunction and serious consequences.
The main symptoms can be severe in the right bank, liver augmentation, digestive disorders, chronic and unexpressed coughing, shortness of breath, seizure of headache, dizziness, and increased intracranial pressure.
Immunosuppressive system disruption
In the event of detection of an alien agent and its metabolites, the immune system will attempt to neutralize the helminthes, which will lead to the development of hypersensitivity in the human body.
This will be manifested by various allergic reactions: skin rashes, eczema, atopic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, lung eosinophilic infiltration, bronchospasm, and other symptoms.
In the event of a marked worm invasion, it will be impossible to vaccinate the child due to the risk of allergies to vaccination. Sometimes it is simply not worth it, because there will be no full immunity for pathology. Therefore, it is necessary to make sure that the child does not have worms before vaccination.
The severity of bowel disease
The intestinal infections that many children go through are heavier and take longer to recover from. One of the reasons for this is that the bacterial balance of the intestine is compromised.
Symptoms of worms in children of different ages
Depending on the age of the child, the symptoms may vary somewhat, especially for young children.
Signs to which the parents of the infant should pay attention:
- unwanted crying;
- sleepless short sleep during the day and constantly interrupted at night;
- night salivation, which is defined by a wet pillow;
- flowing in the language;
- insufficient weight set;
- A closer to the year parents may notice the child trying to scratch the anus in his sleep;
- allergic rashes on the skin and mucous membranes;
- frequent colds;
- visual detection of fecal parasites;
Signs of worms in a child of one year's life:
- belly pain;
- nausea, vomiting;
- li>liquid stool;
- starting cough;
- body temperature rise;
- analytical discomfort;
- cold and allergic diseases;
- detection of worms in excreta;
Signs of parasites in children 2 years old:
- dispeptic phenomena;
- stomach pain;
- Elevation or loss of appetite for no apparent reason;
- body weight loss;
- nausea and night salivation;
- increase in liver and spleen;
- visual helminth detection;
- skin rash;
- frequent acute respiratory infections;
- increased fatigue;
li>increase in lymph nodes;
Signs of helminthiasis in children 3 years and older:
- grimmed abdominal pain in the navel area;
- nausea, vomiting and dyspeptic symptoms;
- frequent complaints of headache;
- frequent complaints of headaches/li>
- pale and blue circles of the bones with the eyes;
- tooth buckling during night's sleep;
- zoom in the anus;
- general symptoms: fatigue, capriciousness;
- various skin rashes.
The above symptoms may not be exact signs of helminthiasis other than visual detection of parasites. However, if any indication is found, it is necessary to consult a doctor!
Precise diagnosis of parasites. Tests
After any of the signs of parasitic invasion have been detected by parents, it is necessary to see the doctor who is:
- will interview the parents and examine the child;
- will mean general clinical laboratory tests;
- Recommend special diagnostic methods;
Two groups of methods aimed at detecting parasitic invasion are accepted:
- direct, aimed at detecting the helminth itself, its eggs or larvae, their fragments;
- indirect, which indicate the presence of worms through the disruption of organs and systems.
These methods are used by physicians to examine faeces with the naked eye or under a magnifying glass to detect small helminths or their eggs. However, a sample has to be prepared for this by means of the retention or sifting method.
Microhelmitoscopic fecal examination
This group of diagnostic methods is distinguished as follows:
- Helmintoscopic – smear preparation:
- the native smear, but this method is insensitive to mild invasion;
- thick smear with cellophane is more sensitive;
- enrichment methods:
- Flotation, based on the use of various chemical substances, thanks to which helminth eggs float;
- planting, characterized by the dissolution of fats and proteins in the excreta, after which insoluble helmintolarvoscopic eggs are identified:
- Bermann's method based on the thermopropy of the larvae of parasites, which means that they are actively moved into warm water;
- cultivation of the larvae of ankilostomides from eggs, that is, keeping the faeces at the temperature necessary for larvae hatching and their further detection;
- The method of detecting larvae with schistosomes based on keeping the faecal deposit at a certain temperature in bright light, and then pouring it into a dark tube with a tube, in the latter and concentrated larvae.
Methods for the study of body fluids
These methods involve the study of the content of the duodenum and vomiting masses, as well as the determination of larvae and eggs in urine, sputum, and abscesses.
The larvae of migratory parasites, which include ascarids, can be found in the blood. Under the microscope, a drop of blood is examined in which moving larvae can be detected. To detect mild worm invasion, more blood needs to be taken.
For reliable results it is necessary to make a scrape around the anus, which is produced one and a half hours after the patient falls asleep or in the morning before the toilet. For this purpose, a special tube with a cotton swab is used to wipe the perianal folds and close the tube tightly.
This many methods of laboratory diagnostics are dictated by the large number of parasites and their life cycle.
Health prevention in children is the basis for healthy and full development of the child.
Prophylactic methods can be referred to as preventive methods:
- training the child in hygienic activities;
- parents need to ensure the purity of fruit and vegetables;
- Leaving children unsupervised on the street, so that the child does not “taste” something that is not worthwhile;
- Flies and cockroaches, which are not only carriers of helminth eggs, but also other diseases, are not allowed in the apartment;
- use of repellents to prevent the transfer of the pathogen through blood-sucking insects;
- correct and sufficient heat treatment of meat and fish.
when a single family member is diagnosed with helminths, preventive treatment should be provided to all;
With regard to the preventive use of helminthic drugs, there is a twofold opinion: some specialists are categorically against it, others – for example, Dr. Komarovski E.A. believes that medication is possible if there are symptoms of worm invasion, but in this case recommends taking less toxic medications.
No harmless helminths exist, all of which have a detrimental effect not only on one organ system, but on the body as a whole. Therefore, the detection and early treatment of parasitic invasion is an important aspect of a child's well-being.
Symptoms of worms in children and Komarowski's opinion about helminthiasis
Children of all ages suffer from helminth infections. The risk is everywhere. Especially in kindergarten, sandboxes, public transport. Signs of worm infection can easily be confused with other common diseases. Therefore, adults need to look carefully at how children feel.
Children most often become infected with helminths such as ascarids and pinworms. The symptoms of their appearance are a little different. We present you a detailed article about ascarids, their symptoms and treatment here.
Askaridosis is marked:
- Childness-free cough;
- Bulma, skin rashes of infectious and allergic nature;
- Stomatitis, gingivitis, herpes;
- Lividness under the eyes and pale skin;
- Less weight. You can find out how to put on weight here.
In case of spikes, it is observed:
- Solid itching in the anal canal area (especially in the evening and at night);
- Piniciliation and pain in the act of defecation;
- In fecal masses, worms of 0.5-1 cm are visually visible.
To the main symptoms should be added:
- Decrease in appetite, strong craving for sweets (especially chocolate and nuts)/li>
- Nausea, vomiting, temperature;
- Diarrhea and constipation;
- Sluggishness, decreased mental activity;
- Dull hair color;
- Nervousness, irritability, tearfulness, stress, depression;
- Unaccidental increase in body temperature (even up to 39°).
The symptoms of worms in children 2 years old are easily taken for another disease. For example: respiratory diseases, bronchitis, intestinal infections, poisoning. Often the cause of allergies is sought in irritants among products or external factors. But it can hide in the presence of worms. Incorrect treatment and misdiagnosis contribute to their development. Then the health and even the life of the little child will be at risk.
Symptoms of the acute stage
This stage indicates the presence of worm infections.
This can be recognized by these symptoms:
- Serious abdominal pain that does not go away after a few minutes;
- Limps more than 3 days;
- Seizures of vegetal dystonia (increased breathing, panic attacks, tingling goosebumps syndrome, darkness in the eyes, migraine);
- Very unpleasant breath and belching;
These symptoms indicate a large number of helminths in the body. This could have serious consequences.
- chronic intestinal obstruction;
- chronic form of allergic reactions (including asthma).
Intoxication leads to the disruption of all systems and functions in the body. If you don't start treatment in time, the worms can have the worst consequences.
Chronic stage symptoms
Chronic stage indicates that the child is constantly being infected with worms. Maybe even the presence of mixed helminthiasis