Worms in children: symptoms and treatment of worm in child
What symptoms of worm in child
Helmintose is one of the most common diseases in the world, affecting people of all ages. Children account for 80% of the total number of people infected with helminths.
Varieties of helminths and helminthiasis are very numerous – today there are 342 species of parasites, but in Russia and Ukraine the most common are about 70 species.
Upon entering the body, parasites disrupt the normal functioning of the organ system, but the signs of helminthiasis are not always pronounced.
The most common species of worms
In spite of the diversity of worms in nature, all human helminths are divided into 3 groups:
- nematodes (round worms) – spikes, moss-eyed, ascarids, trichinelles
- ceastodes (ribbon worms, flat worms) – bovine chain (solitaire), dwarf chain (rat chain), pork chain, wide ribbon, Echinococcus;
- worms-salvage workers – cat's two-knuckle, Siberian two-knuckle, liver knuckle, paragonimosis.
Nematodes are the worms that most often choose a child's body to live in, causing such diseases:
- ascarides (white, yellowish or pink rounded worms with pointed edges, may be 15 to 40 cm long, live in the small intestine) – ascaridosis pathogens;
- ostriches (grayish light worms, have a rounded shape, length – from 0.5 to 1.2 mm, are localized in the small intestine, colon and blind intestine, eggs are laid in the area of the anal opening) cause enterobiosis;
- high eyes (whitish worms up to 5 cm long, the front part of their body is like a thread, the back part is wider) cause trichocephalosis.
Enterobiasis is the most common type of helminthiasis in most countries of the world.
Helminthiasis, caused by cestries and fellow worms, is only 2 to 5% of all helminthiasis cases.
When they are infected with helminths
When there are many ways in which worms can enter the body, the most common for a child are these:
- through dirty hands;
- together with unwashed vegetables, fruits, herbs;
- after contact with pets;
- after contact with unboiled water;
- orally (this is especially true for babies who like to taste everything that comes in handy);
- with products that have been eaten by flies or cockroaches.
Why children are most likely to be exposed to helminthiasis
There are several reasons why children are more likely to be infected with worms than adults:
- non-formulated immunity;
- low gastric acidity (with sufficient levels of worms dying in the stomach);
- overactivity in cognition of the world around, and most often this knowledge is tasteful (the child tries to try everything he or she sees).
From these factors, to avoid worms in a child's body, it is necessary to teach the child to take personal hygiene and control him/her while walking on the street.
General signs of helminthiasis
In the early stages of helminthiasis in children there are nonspecific symptoms:
- Enhanced or reduced appetite;
- Nausea attacks;
- split begins to appear in larger amounts;
- chair problems (constipation or diarrhoea);
- stomach or right subcostal pain;
- increased incidence of colds;
- irritability, sleep disturbances due to toxins that are products of parasites;
- reduced physical or mental activity;
splitting begins to occur/li>
Closures are often signs of ascaridosis, as worms accumulate in the small intestine and prevent the normal passage of the stool.
Earthling signs are very easy because their eggs remain on the objects they have touched. Not all disinfectants are capable of destroying worms.
The symptoms of the disease in the child are as follows:
- zoom in the anal passageway (most often at night when the female lays eggs in this place);
- anxious sleep, also because of itching;
- changes in weight – its reduction or addition;
- rapid fatigue;
- irritability and capriciousness/li>
- Enuresis in girls due to parasites entering the urethra;
- inflammatory processes in the genitals if the pinworms got into the vagina;
- decreased immunity;
- disturbance of the intestinal microflora, constipation or diarrhea;
- belly pain in the navel area.
li>cut teeth at night;
Attention! Accumulation of spikes in the blind intestine can cause acute appendicitis in the child.
From the itching in the back aisle of the baby begins to itch in the sleep and thousands of eggs fall under the nails, then orally – in the intestine, where the spikes appear and grow, ready to lay eggs again after 2 weeks. As you can see, there's no way to get rid of enterobiasis without treatment.
Symptoms of ascariasis
Ascarides are parasites that can choose to live in any organ: lungs, liver, heart, pancreas, brain. Eggs of parasites get into the human body from the soil through unwashed hands or together with poorly washed vegetables, fruits, herbs.
Oral way larvae get into the small intestine, and from there with a blood flow are spread to other organs, most often choosing the liver, lungs and heart.
The most common signs of ascaridosis:
- heat up to 38 degrees;
- general weakness, rapid fatigue;
- dry cough with orange sputum or blood impurities;
- obstructive bronchitis;
- dermatoses of an allergic nature;
- the hives that affect the hands and feet;
- bronchial asthma.
Signs that appear in later stages (after about three months):
- abdominal pains reminiscent of contractions;
- constipation (cause – intestinal obstruction due to accumulation of ascarids);
- anus redness;
- decrease in immunity, which leads to infectious diseases (stomatitis, mucous membranes and skin);
- nausea, sometimes accompanied by vomiting.
Intoxication is also accompanied by mental disorders:
- Sleep disturbances;
- Epilepsy attacks;
- Irritation and others.
The reason for these symptoms in a child is that the parasites enter the intestines with lung sputum.
Slightly less often in ascariasis there is a decrease in blood pressure, photophobia and pupil dilation.
How to recognize other types of worm infections in a child
As well as these parasites, other pathogens can cause helminthiasis in a child:
- intoxicating (trichocephalasis) does not cause any pronounced symptoms, but periodically shows itself to be impaired in the gastrointestinal tract (meteorisms, diarrhea with blood, constipation, nausea and vomiting, and anemia), in young children due to intoxication there is a slowdown in mental and physical development;
- the dwarf chain (disease – genolepidosis) – causes gastrointestinal disorders, increased salivation, headache, bronchospasm and allergic rhinitis;
- Cat, Siberian bilge (opistorchosis) is manifested by subfebril fever, allergic reactions, skin rashes, catarrhal syndrome, enlargement of lymph nodes and liver, joint pains and right bank, gastrointestinal disorders, pneumonia and hepatitis (the latter two diseases occur in severe cases of infection);
- Wide ribbon (difillobotriosis) causes intestinal disorders and abdominal pain as well as allergies and 12-deficiency anemia.
Symptoms of worm in children are very common, so you need to be aware of changes in the child's health status and behavior.
The symptoms of the disease in babies
The detection of worms in babies is much more difficult than in older children and can be signalled by these signs:
- Bad dreams and anxiety;
- inflammatory processes in the anus region, in girls – genital lip inflammation;
- constipation or diarrhea;
- meteorisms, colics;
- Li>decreased appetite;
- increased body temperature to a small extent;
- couple, which is not related to respiratory diseases.
Symptoms and treatment of helminthiasis in infants require the utmost care.
Treatment of worm invasion
Treatment of worm invasion in children is carried out with antihelminthic agents. In addition to them, the doctor can recommend antihistamines to reduce allergic symptoms in the child.
Today on the shelves of pharmacies you can find a lot of antihistamines that can be used by children from two years old, they are available not only in tablets, but also in droplets and suspensions. The most common allergy control products:
Antihelminthic agents can drive out individual parasites or have a wide range of effects. The list of drugs recommended by WHO is as follows:
- Piperazine is the least toxic drug and can therefore be used to treat even young children, who are weak in case of severe infestations, only for pinworms and ascarids, but their larvae and eggs are not killed (suspensions are used for children);
- Mebendazole (Vermox, Vormil) is used, if a child has nematodes, this drug is most effective for severe worm invasion (affects not only adults, but also larvae and eggs), children are prescribed from 2 years old;
- Pyrantel (Nemocidal, Helmintox) is indicated for children from 6 months of age, used for the treatment of ascaridosis and enterobiasis, it is sufficient to take a single dose and repeat it after 2-3 weeks.
- Levamisole (Decarisis) can be used in children as young as 3 years of age, an effective means of eliminating pinworms and treating mixed worm infections.
If the child is too young to be treated with pills, use syrups and suspensions. In most cases, helminthiasis is treated quickly.
To any helminthic agent increases the concentration of toxins in the body (they are secreted by parasites at death), so a day after antihelminthic therapy the child should be given enterosorbents (activated carbon, Polysorb or Polyfepan).
Pay attention! If the enterosorbents are taken earlier than one day of antihelminthic therapy, the last result will not work.
Prophylaxis of helminth infection
Protection of helminths h3>
Protection of worm infections should be governed by such rules:
- thoroughly processed fruit and vegetables before eating;
- meat and fish should be fully fried or cooked, and they should be cooked for 40-60 minutes;
- regular treatment of pets for worms;
- mandatory hand washing after contact with pets or walking on the street;
- keeping toys and toys clean
- getting rid of the habit of taking pencils, felt-tip pens or pens in the mouth, chewing nails
- regular cutting and cleaning of nailsat night you need to put on your baby tight panties, so that the eggs of worms are less spread on the bed linen
- daily change of panties in the morning and evening, washing the baby.
Children's worm invasion: signs of infection and treatment methods
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Flat infestation in children is the most common pathology to which babies are exposed. Most children, at least once in their lives, face a worm infection. There are many types of worms that can infect a person.
In some cases, invasion is asymptomatic, so parents need to carefully monitor the baby's health.
What is a worm invasion
Well infestation is a great variety of diseases that cause worms to enter the human body. Helminthiasis can manifest itself in the form of other diseases, such as allergies, colds, dysbacteriosis. Therefore, it is not always recognizable in the early stages.
Example of an allergic reaction in a child with worms
There is a huge number of parasites, but only 70 species are possible. Each species has its own unique features, provokes different diseases, has a different appearance. Inhalation varies, depending on the organ affected by the worms.
The most common worms in children are pinworms
In some cases, helminths cause death.
General symptoms and signs of helminthiasis in children
The general symptomatology of helminthiasis refers to:
- deterioration or appetite enhancement;
- nausea, possibly vomiting;
- brilliant salivation;
- chair disorders;
- the appearance of lower abdominal pain;
- headaches, headaches;
- allergic reactions;
- participation of colds;
- irritability, capriciousness;
- Sleep disturbance;
- deterioration of mental and physical activity;
- dry cough.
Test for worms
Invasion with different types of worms may be accompanied by other symptoms that depend on the worm habitat. Ascarids can cause constipation because they accumulate in the small intestine. Pinworms itch around the anus, especially at night and in the morning.
May rash on the body be a sign of infection
Pasite activity is accompanied by release of toxins that poison the body. When the liver and intestines are unable to function due to invasion, the immune system produces protective cells.
High levels of eosinophils in combination with worm enzymes cause allergies in the form of skin rash, which can be of two kinds.
|This type of rash is characterized by the life activity of the parasite in the intestine, but all the negative symptoms are reflected in the skin:|
“Hives” from parasites
|This type of rash appears in the lesion. The skin has hard nodules where the parasite lives and lays eggs. Infection can occur after contact with street dogs, cats, insect bites. If you don't get timely medical attention, the knot is inflamed, and there is severe pain, itching.|
Temperature and cough with worm infections
Cough and fever are common symptoms of worm infection. If the larvae penetrate the lungs, the immune system responds with a protective reaction, trying to remove the irritant from the body.
Dry cough is manifested only at the initial stages, with exacerbation, it will be accompanied by the release of sputum, blood.
Temperature rise is most often provoked by ascarids, pinworms and trichinelles. With this symptom, the parasite can be found in any of the person's internal organs. Deterioration can occur a couple of days after infection, especially if the worms have started to multiply.
Analyse and diagnose child's worms
Without special equipment it is impossible to detect eggs of parasites in the baby's faeces. If there is a high risk of infection other than a smear, it is necessary to take blood tests.
Higher levels of eosinophiles in the blood indicate infection. The baby will also need to be tested for igE and igG immunoglobulins. Dysbacteriosis tests and pet tests are not excluded.
Children's helminthiasis treatment
Children's helminthiasis treatment requires a comprehensive approach. In addition to antihelminthic drugs, it is necessary to choose immunomodulators and vitamin complexes. They will speed up the rehabilitation period, helping the organs to recover from parasitic damage.
To avoid relapse, treatment is repeated after a week. There are a lot of anti-white products available at the pharmacy today.
But you have to keep in mind that some of them are not able to handle this or that type of parasite. All antihelminthic drugs are toxic, have contraindications and can cause side effects.
For the elimination of allergic reactions, the doctor may prescribe sedatives:
The most effective in the treatment of helminthic infestation in children are:
The choice of medication depends on the individual characteristics of the disease and the baby's condition. After taking some drugs, sorbents are required to be taken, which will help to minimize damage from toxic substances that release parasites and medications.
To avoid worm invasion it is necessary to follow some recommendations:
- good foodstuffs must be treated well before eating;
- Fish and meat must be treated well;
- wean your baby to toys, pencils and bite his nails;
- regularlyWhen putting your child to bed, put on tight linen that prevents parasites from spreading to bed linen;
- daily wash your child, change his bedding and underwear.
li>regularly whistle pets;
Keep the child's toys clean;
This helminth invasion is not insured. Preventive measures can reduce the risk of infection. However, it does not provide absolute protection against invasion.
Partners should therefore closely monitor the health of their babies and toddlers, and if they feel unwell they should seek medical advice in order to diagnose and treat them in a timely manner.
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- Cleanses parasites per course;
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Helminthiasis in children
Helminthiasis in children is a parasitic human disease caused by low worms (helminths), characterized by a prolonged course and a wide range of manifestations.
According to WHO, almost everyone has a parasitic disease in their lifetime.
Children are the most susceptible to helminthic infections; of the total number of infected children under 14 years of age, the proportion is 80-85%.
Helminthiasis in children can be disguised as a variety of infectious and noncommunicable diseases, causing difficulties in diagnosis, the burden of existing pathology, and its persistence in childhood.
In grafted children with helminthiasis, there is a 2-3-fold decrease in postvaccinal antibody titers compared to children without parasitic invasion, and therefore a lack of specific immunity and increased susceptibility to various infections.
In paediatrics, the problem of prevention and diagnosis of helminthiasis in children is of great medical and social importance.
Classification of helminthiasis in children
Depending on the realisation of the life cycle of parasitic worms is different:
- contact helminthiasis in children (enterobiasis, genolepidosis) – characterized by the release of parasites of invasive (infectious) eggs, which are through contaminated hands and household items enter the child's body;
- geohelminthiasis (ascariasis, strongyloidosis, ankilostomidosis) are characterized by the release of immature eggs by parasites, which should pass part of their development in the soil. Parasites enter the human body after reaching the invasive stage;
- biohelminthiasis (tennis doses, opistorchosis, schistosomiasis, echinococcosis, etc.).) – are characterized by the maturation of larval forms in the body of intermediate hosts (ticks, fish, shellfish, etc.), before the parasites become infectious to humans.
Based on the localization of parasites in the body, the following types of helminthiasis in children are identified: intestinal (ascariasis, enterobiasis, strongyloidosis, teniarynchosis, trichocephalosis), pulmonary (tomixosis, paragonimoses), tissue (trichinosis, toxocarosis, schistosomiasis, filariasis) and helminthiasis of the hepatobiliary tract (clonorchiasis, opistorchosis, fasciolysis).
Based on the type of helminthiasis pathogens in children, they are divided into the following species:
- nematode – caused by round worms (ascarids, pinworms, hair-heads, etc.))
- cystodoses – caused by tapeworms (wide ribbon, pork chain, etc.))
- trematode doses – caused by peasants (cat's two-legged, pulmonary peeler, liver peeler, etc.).
The high incidence of helminthiasis in children is explained by the high prevalence of various forms of parasites (cysts, eggs, larvae) in the environment and poor hygiene skills.
Most helminthiasis in children caused by nematodes undergoes a two-phase flow: the larval stage and the stage of parasitic adult intestines. The source of infection is a sick person who excrete helminth eggs with faeces into the environment.
Within 2-3 weeks, the eggs ripen in the soil, the infection is facilitated by the use of egg-contaminated parasites of water, fruits and vegetables.
Separately, there is an enterobiasis among nematodes, which has a contact pathway of transmission and often affects entire groups (family, kindergarten group, school class).
Chestodoses and trematodoses in children are much less common than helminthiasis caused by roundworms. Infestation is caused by the consumption of meat and fish that have not been properly thermally treated, sown vegetables or water. Localization of lesions may include the small intestine, liver parenchyma and its ducts, lungs and bronchi. The duration of the acute stage is from 2-3 weeks to 2 months from the moment of invasion; during this period, the main clinical manifestations are associated with the development of general allergic reactions to foreign antigens of parasites.
In the transition of the acute phase of helminthiasis in children in a chronic leading role in pathogenesis plays a toxic influence of products of helminths on the body, traumatic and mechanical effects on the organs in which live parasites, violation of metabolic processes, secondary immunodeficiencies.
Some helminthiasis increases the risk of tumor development in children: cholangioms (clonorchiomasis, opistorchiasis), bladder cancer, or papillomatosis of the intestine (schistosomiasis).
Children's symptoms of helminthiasis
Acute helminthiasis in a child has a recurrent itchy skin rash like urticaria, fever, lymphadenitis, arthralgia and myalgia.
Pulmonary syndrome may develop, accompanied by prolonged dry coughing with asthmatic component, shortness of breath, chest pain; in ascariasis, eosinophilic pleurisy and hemorrhagic surgery may occur.
Flow syndrome (trichinosis, trichocephalosis) may include local or generalized edema, in t. h. Quinke's edema in children.
Typical for the acute phase of helminthiasis in children is an abdominal syndrome characterized by meteorism, unstable stools (constipation, diarrhea), nausea, burping, etc.
Stomach aches can be volatile or persistent, strong, simulating an acute abdominal clinic.
Intoxication and asthenoneurotic disorders include unreasonable subfibrillation, weakness, sleep disturbances, bruxism, irritability, seizures